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Cornell University Library 
DA 419.T7T75 

Officer of tfie Long Parliament and fiis d 

3 1924 027 972 276 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

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the United States on the use of the text. 






Account of the Life dr' Times 
of Colonel Richard Townesend of 
Castletown [Castletownshend) & 
a Chronicle of his Fainily With 
Illustrations Edited by Richard 
dx" Dorothea Toivnshend 

London Henry Frowde 

Oxford University Press Warehouse 

Amen Corner, E.G. 




Introduction vii 


The Defence of Lyme Regis and the Siege of Pen- 

DENNis Castle . i 

The Irish Troubles . . .... 33 


The Battle of Knocknones ... . . 48 

Plot and Counterplot and the Surrender of Cork . 62 

Settling Down . . 91 

Bryan Townshend, with Notes on Synge . . 143 


Castle Townshend House, with Notes on Somerville 
and Tables of the First House (I) and Somer- 
ville (II) 150 




The other Children of Colonel Richard Townesend, 
VIZ. John, Francis, Horatio, Philip, Cornelius, 
Catherine, Dorothea, and Mrs. Owen, with Notes 
on the Earls of Barrymore and the Copinger 
AND Becher Families. (Tables III-VIII) . . 195 


Skirtagh House, and Notes on Morris. (Table IX) . 216 

Whitehall House. (Table X) . . ... 229 


Derry House, with Notes on Fleming, Corker, and 

Oliver. (Tables XI, XII) 240 


Donoughmore House. (Table XIII) . . . 267 


'And I but think and speak and do 
As my dead fathers move me to.' 

R. L. Stevenson. 

The English Civil War of 1641-49 was essentially 
a people's war ; it was not fought by rival royal houses, 
nor by rebellious Barons marshalling their feudal re- 
tainers. The questions that divided King Charles and 
his parliament touched the life of every Englishman, 
and there was hardly an English family that did not 
take its share in the struggle. The names of the leaders 
are familiar as household words ; but many soldiers now 
rest forgotten in their ' camps of green ' who had their 
share in winning the freedom that has been handed 
down to us. 

In telhng the story of one of these forgotten worthies, 
it is hardly possible to separate private from public 
history, however sHghtly qualified a genealogist may 
be to make excursions into that dangerously fascinating 
field. In truth, we know but little of the private life 
of Colonel Richard Townesend : public records tell of 
his pubHc services, and we must guess the rest. His 
descendants, who have left portraits and letters behind 
them which make us more familiar with their home life, 
were prominent leaders in the south-west of Munster, 


a country to which we may apply Professor Freeman's 
description of South Wales, ' The land was conquered, 
divided, to a large extent it was settled, but its former 
inhabitants were neither destroyed, expelled, nor assimi- 
lated, . . . genealogy and family history connect them- 
selves more with real history in a district of this sort 
than elsewhere.' 

From time to time different members of the Towns- 
hend family in County Cork have begun to draw up 
some account of their ancestors ; but all the memoirs 
have remained unfinished, and it has fallen to the 
present editors to try to collect the scattered records 
and traditions of the line. 

It is very difficult to avoid errors when drawing up 
a sketch of such a scattered family, whose history runs 
through so many troubled years ; but if these frag- 
mentary records induce any other members of the 
family to correct the mistakes they contain, or to collect 
new information, the labours of the editors will be amply 

There is some danger that a family history may 
resemble a collection of epitaphs ; and it may be fairly 
asked, ' Where are all the bad Townshends ? ' 

To rake up old sins and gibbet the failings of fore- 
fathers is not a very grateful or honourable task, and 
it is even less necessary to do it in Ireland than else- 
where, for facts there speak as plainly as written words. 
The Protestant settlers formed a proud and powerful 
oHgarchy, who did very much what seemed right in 
their own eyes. Those who fell to drinking, gambling, 
and self-indulgence, very soon died out altogether. 


Natural selection had free plajf, and punished promptly 
and surely, and only the fit survived. 

The fit were not always characters that would pre- 
cisely suit the nineteenth-century ideals of excellence : 
undoubtedly they too often shared the faults of their 
times ; but their virtues were their own. It is idle to 
expect the men of one time or country to match the 
model of another; but, speaking roughly, the families 
that have survived the days of rebellion and famine 
are descended from ancestors who were respectable, 
honourable, and intelligent gentlemen, who served their 
generation to the best of their ability. 

The unfit dropped out : for example, one family of 
Ehzabethan settlers has left nothing but its name be- 
hind it. Its members were once among the principal 
gentry of the West, yet the story goes, when money 
was granted by the grand jury to them for improving 
the highways, they used to lay the coins in rows on 
the ground, and call on the passers-by to swear that 
they had seen the money laid out on the road ! The 
last of their name lived in a little cabin by the road 
side, and when a child from the neighbouring big house 
peeped in one day, the old lady, for a lady she was in 
manners and appearance, said, 'Ah, my dear, are you 
looking for a bit of bread? Not a bit have I in the 

But queer stories may be told of most of the old 
families. It was a jolly, free and easy life, that was led 
in the last century, and the reckless ' Castle Rackrent ' 
ways brought many a fine property into the Encum- 
bered Estates Court. 


One very hospitable Mrs. Townsend loved to keep 
open house, and when carload after carload of cousins 
were seen driving up the avenue, an astonished English 
visitor asked the hostess where she could possibly 
bestow so many guests. ' Ah ! ' she answered, ' I 
needn't trouble at all. I've a very obliging cook and 
a very accommodating butler, and they'll each take two 
or three in their beds.' 

All were not so hospitable, and the opposite extreme 
from this good old lady was a Mr. Townsend, who had 
a fine place, entered by a beautiful avenue of trees. 
One day a friend met him, and said, ' I was caught in 
a storm the other day near your house, and I sheltered 
under that big oak in the avenue.' ' Ah, now, 'tis a pity 
you stopped there,' exclaimed Mr. Townsend, ' if only 
you'd gone twenty yards further down the road you'd 
have found a much thicker tree ! ' 

The younger members of the large families naturally 
had not much money to spare ; one young Townsend, 
it is said, could get no funds to take him to college, 
but was so determined to go that he rode all the way 
up to Dublin, feeding his horse on the grass by the 
road sides as he went. 

In the more remote parts of the country, life was 
often not merely poor, but rough and squalid. There is 
a story of a great lady, visiting her rector, a Townsend, 
and being asked to wait in the parlour, she sat there 
till her patience was nearly exhausted, when a bare- 
footed girl burst into the room exclaiming, ' Musha, 
then, did you see the master's razors anywhere ? ' The 
great lady thought that it might be some time before 


Mr. Townsend's toilet was completed, and said she 
would call another day. 

In a family that numbered several hundred members 
it could not be hoped that all should succeed in resist- 
ing the attractions offered by the wild, jovial life of their 
less educated neighbours. In parts where there was 
not much choice of society, the talents and charm which 
ought to have enabled their possessors to take a high 
position sometimes proved a curse, and sank them to 
the level of the peasantry around them. 

One young Townsend tried in vain to coax enough 
of money out of his mother to take to the races, but 
the old lady was obdurate ; at last he seemed to give 
it up, and changed the subject. ' Mother,' said he, ' did 
you see the new white cow I've brought back from 
the fair? she's the greatest cow between this and 
Cork ! ' Mrs. Townsend was curious. ' Come along,' 
said he, and they crossed the farm-yard, and he opened 
the door of the shed. The old lady went a step inside, 
when the door banged behind her, and she found that 
her dutiful son had left her face to face with a great 
bull. In vain did she rage and entreat; the door was 
kept fast till she had handed the key of her money-box 
out through a chink, and then at last she was released. 

A wild and lonely life was led by many of the gentry 
in the isolated country houses on the western sea-coast. 
Small profits were made by farming, and it seemed as 
though the English Government levied duties on im- 
ports for the special purpose of ruining Irish trade. 
No wonder that when a French ship was seen weather- 
bound in the offing, a cow was often hoisted into a boat 


and rowed out to exchange for a cask of claret, or that 
the peasants were quick to learn the lesson, and follow 
the example of their betters. 

In Charles Lever's novel. Sir Jasper Carew, he 
mentions a Townshend member of parliament who sup- 
ported the Irish government in 1782. It would be 
interesting to know if the name was used by chance, 
or if the novelist alluded to a real man. 

Another Townsend, who has not yet been identified, 
is described as follows in a ' Letter from the kingdom 
of Kerry,' 1845 ^ : 

' Mr. Townsend is one of the water-guard at Sark, and 
he amuses his leisure hours by diving into the mysteries of 
natural creation ; he is a natural historian of no mean acquire- 
ments. The Kerry toads were in his museum placed in the 
most laughable and extraordinary positions, some as sailors 
rowing a boat, some as orators, &c. We spent an interesting 
hour in this simple abode, which is dignified by being the 
home of an industrious genius and an ardent lover of the 
works of his Creator.' 

Plenty of wild and romantic stories might be collected 
in the West ; but perhaps we have had enough of the 
sins and follies of the old times, and it is pleasanter to 
turn to public events and see the share the Townsends 
took in the progress of their country. 

The Editors have to thank many members of the 
family for their help in preparing this history : — 

Mrs. Pierrepont Mundy of Castle -Townshend and 
Thornbury House, Gloucestershire, for the loan of 

' Irish Top. Tracts, British Museum. 


family notes and letters, and of a MS. account of Colonel 
Richard Townesend and his principal descendants, by 
the Right Hon. Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend. 

Mrs. Edward Townshend of Galway, for valuable in- 
formation collected by her father, John Sealy Townsend, 

The late Rev. Aubrey Townshend, Vicar of Puxton, 
for much valuable information, including illuminated 
pedigree rolls by Major Edward Townshend, and a 
MS. Life of Colonel Richard Townesend, by John Sealy 

Mrs. Townsend of Garrycloyne, for the loan of a 
Memoir of Colonel Townesend's principal descendants, 
by George Digby Daunt. 

The Very Rev. the Dean of Tuam, the Rev. John 
Hume Townsend, and Mr. Samuel Nugent Townshend, 
for notes on their branches of the family. 

Mrs. Becher of Lough Ine, for the loan of a pedigree ; 
Miss H. Somerville, Miss Reeves, Miss L. Fleming, 
and the Very Rev. the Dean of Cloyne, for notes and 

Mrs. John Townshend, for the loan of letters ; Mrs. 
Pierrepont Mundy, the late Miss Townshend of White- 
hall, Mrs. S. Townshend of Harley Street, Mrs. Fleming 
of New Court, and Colonel Somerville of Drishane, for 
leave to photograph portraits. 


Among the authorities consulted have been — 

Clarendon. History of the Rebellion. 
Leland. History of Ireland. 

C. G. Walpole. Kingdom of Ireland. 

J. R. Green. Short History of the English People. 

Gardiner. Puritan Revolution. 

Gardiner. Great Civil War. 

Cromwell. Letters and Speeches, edited by Carlyle. 

D. Murphy. Cromwell in Ireland. 
Lords' Journals. 

Commons' Journals. 

Prendergast. Crommellian Settlement. 
Masson. Life of Milton. 
Orrery. State Letters. 
BuDGELL. Memoirs of the Boyle Family. 
Ludlow. Memoirs. 
Carte. Life of Ormonde. 
Dictionary of National Biography. 
Sir Richard Cox. Hibernia Anglicana. 
Edmund Borlace. History of the Irish Rebellion. 
Domestic State Papers, edited by Mrs. Green. 
Carte MSS., Bodleian Library. 
Tanner MSS., Bodleian Library. 
Extracts from Council Book of Clonakilty. MSS. 
Caulfield. Council Book of Youghal. 
Caulfield. Annals of Kinsale. 
Caulfield. Council Book of Cork. 

Rev. W. Maziere Brady, D.D. Records of Cork, Cloyne, 
and Ross. 

Smith. History of Cork and Kerry. 
TowNSEND. Statistical Survey of County Cork. 
Bennett. History of Bandon. 


HicKSON. Old Kerry Records. 

John Sealy Townshend. Wills, Custom House and other 
Dublin MS. Records. 

TucKEY. Cork Rcinciubraiicer. 

Charles Hervey Townshend of Newhaven, Conn. The 
Townshend Family. 

Cary. Memorials of the Civil IVar. 

Sprigge. Anglia Rcdiviva. 

Donovan. Carhery Sketches. 

Various Pamphlets in the Bodleian Library and in the 
British Museum, and the Newspapers from 1644 to 1649 in 
the same Collections. 

Whitelock. Memorials. 

GuizoT. English Revolution. 

J. T. Gilbert. Contemporary History of Ireland, 1641-52. 

Roberts. History of Lyme Regis. 

Hepworth Dixon. Life of Blake. 



Facsimile of Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Townesend's Letter to 

Colonel Ceely Frontispiece 

Fort built at Castletownshend by Colonel Richard Townesend 

To face page 91 

Castle Townshend ... >, ,> 108 

Portrait of Mary, wife of Bryan Townshend . • ,, >, I43 

Portrait of Richard Townshend, of Castletownshend ,, ,, 150 

Portrait of Richard Townshend, of Castletownshend, M. P. „ ,, 153 

Portrait of Elizabeth, wife of Richard Townshend ,, ,, 157 

Portrait of Samuel Townshend, of Whitehall ,, ,, 229 

Portrait of the Rev. Horatio Townshend, of Derry . ,, ,, 258 


L Richard, Eldest Son of Bryan Townshend . 

IL The Somerville Family 
IIL Eldest Son of Colonel Townesend 
IV. Third Son of Colonel Townesend 

V. Fourth Son of Colonel Townesend 
VL Becher Pedigree, from Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend 

Vn. Sixth Son of Colonel Townesend 
VIII. Eighth Son of Colonel Townesend 
IX. Third Son of Bryan Townshend 
X. Fifth Son of Bryan Townshend . 
XI. Eighth Son of Bryan and Mary Townshend 
XII. Youngest Son of Philip Townshend 
XIII, Ninth Son of Bryan Townshend 

To face page 








To face page 




To face page 




J> i> 








The 27th of July, 1643, was a proud day for the 
English Cavaliers. Bristol, the great seaport of the 
West, the second city of the kingdom, had fallen, fallen 
swiftly and easily, before the assault of Rupert of the 
Rhine. King Charles should soon have his own again, 
and round-headed rebels should swing for their treason. 

Rupert the headlong beheved it with all his heart, 
and was eager next to dash straight upon London. 
But Rupert, though now ten years a soldier, was but 
twenty-four years of age, and Charles with habitual 
caution said ' no ' to the proposals of his ardent nephew. 
It was decided that Prince Maurice, Rupert's younger 
brother, should proceed with a part of the army to 
reduce the West while Charles and Rupert turned 
north to finish off Gloucester, before finally crushing 
the rebellion at the centre, Westminster. 

Prince Maurice's advance into the West was of the 
nature of a triumph. Town after town opened its 
gates to him; nor indeed was it to be wondered at. 
On Sunday, July 24th, Rupert and Maurice had sat 
down before the walls of Bristol, and on Tuesday, 
July 26th, a party of Rupert's horsemen rode over 
those walls between Brandon Hill and Windmill Fort, 
and Governor Fiennes hastily surrendered. The very 
walls of Jericho had held out longer. 


Everywhere the news of the RoyaHst successes was 
spreading. One Parhamentary army under Waller 
had just been knocked to pieces at Roundway Down, 
and another, under the two Fairfaxes, at Atherton Moor. 
Upon the surrender of Bristol many gentlemen got 
safe-conducts from the victorious Rupert and returned 
to their homes. Naturally they exaggerated the courage 
and fierceness of the Cavaliers who had beaten them. 

A wealthy man, Mr. Strode ^ passing through Dor- 
chester, was desired by the magistrates, — anxious 
enough, poor men, to know what their chances were, — 
'to view their works and fortifications and to give his 
judgment on them.' After he had walked about and 
looked at them, he said ' that those works might keep 
out the Cavaliers about half an hour ' ; and then he told 
his hearers strange stories of the maryier of assaulting 
Bristol, 'and that the king's soldiers made nothing of 
running up walls twenty foot high, and that no works 
could keep them out.' 

We can almost hear the superior tone of voice, be- 
fitting a man who had just endured the perils of a siege 
and knew all about it, and see the unhappy faces of the 
local worthies growing longer and longer. Dorchester 
surrendered without a blow. Weymouth, Portland, 
Bideford, Barnstaple, followed its example. Taunton 
and Bridgewater had done the same thing even earlier. 

From Dorchester, Prince Maurice sent a summons, 
amongst other places, to Lyme Regis, which he 
deemed an inconsiderable fishing village. It was 
indeed but a small seaport town, surrounded by hills 
which completely dominated it, and possessing a little 
harbour defended by a mole, locally known as The 
Cobb. It was inhabited however by a daring and 

' Clarendon, iv. 212. 


high-spirited race of seafaring folk, proud of their 
enterprise and their traditions. There must have been 
many old men still alive in 1643 who could tell of 
what they had seen in 1588, when the whole bay, as 
far as eye could see, was covered with ships, and the 
shores rang with the thunder of the cannon as the 
great Armada of Spain swept up the Channel and 
the fleets of England pounded on its rear. Then 
Lyme had sent out two ships, the 'Jacob' and the 
' Revenge,' to help to harry the Spaniard. 

Now, when civil war had broken out in England 
itself, they had chosen their side, and had done their 
best to fortify their town in the interest of the Parlia- 
ment, their very women turning out to labour on the 
works. Colonel Thomas Ceely was appointed to the 
command, with the title of Governor, and a regiment 
of ten companies was raised to garrison the place. 
Whence the officers and men of this regiment came 
we do not at present know, but the captain of one of 
those companies was a young man of the name of 
Townesend \ who was destined to become in after 
years the founder of the family of Townsend in County 
Cork. Of the place of his birth, his parentage, and 
his previous history, we have no certain knowledge 
whatever. Castletownsend, which he built, has been 
destroyed three times, once by siege, once by fire, 
and once by being ' restored,' and all memorials of his 
early life appear to have perished utterly. We know 
from his deposition, made at Cork, February 16, 1654, 
that he was then thirty-six years old, which would 
make the year of his birth 1618. He bore the arms 
of the head of the family in Norfolk, the Presby- 

' So written by himself, though many contemporary records spell the 
name Townsend. 

B 2 


terian Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham^ who was 
brother-in-law to Anne Fairfax, the high-spirited wife of 
the famous Parliamentary General. 

To Prince Maurice's summons Colonel Ceely and 
his officers returned so peremptory an answer that his 
Highness resolved not to attack him then, but to leave 
him alone for the present and pass on to Exeter, which 
was already hard pressed by Sir John Berkley. There 
no assault was necessary; Exeter was persuaded to 
open its gates to the Prince after a fortnight's siege, 
and the ever-victorious army moved on to Dartmouth. 
After a month's resistance that town also yielded itself, 
but by this time autumn was upon them, and wet and 
exposure had told severely upon the besiegers, who had 
to camp in the open field. On however went Maurice 
again from Dartmouth to Plymouth, and here at last his 
career of conquest was stayed. He beleaguered it all 
winter long on the landward side, but the Parliament's 
fleet, under its hard-swearing Lord High Admiral, the 
Earl of Warwick, kept command of the sea, and the 
fortress held him at bay. 

Meantime the much-alarmed Presbyterians of London 
and of the two Houses at Westminster had been fitting 
out new armies to replace those that had been 
scattered, and had been not only zealously taking the 
Covenant themselves, but even sending by sea to 
Scotland to beg their Presbyterian friends across the 
Border to come quick to their assistance. 

Charles, not to be outdone, also looked beyond the 

> Died January i, 1637. Thomas Townsend of Braconashe, grandson of 
Sir Roger Townshend of Raynham, married Anne D'Oyley of Shottisham, 
and Colonel Edward D'Oyley was great-nephew to Dorothy Townsend, 
Mrs. D'Oyley of Wallingford." Colonel Edward and Major Charles D'Oyley 
served with Colonel Richard Townesend in Ireland, and are beheved to 
have been his kinsmen. 


boundaries of his English kingdom for aid in his 
contest with his recalcitrant Parliament. To his wife's 
own country, France, he looked for some help, but his 
most cherished hope was that Ireland would swell his 
forces, and as a matter of fact various Irish regiments 
for his service were landed in Cheshire, in Wales, and 
in the West country. Not all of them, by any means, 
were drawn from the ranks of the Irish loyalists. 
' Eight hundred native Irish rebels,' says Whitlock ^ 
'landed at Weymouth under the Lord Inchiquin to 
serve his majesty.' 

In the eyes of the King's English subjects this was 
a grievous wrong on his part. They looked upon the 
Irish as foreigners, and upon all the Roman Cathohc 
Irish as equally guilty of the fearful massacres of 
English and Scotch Protestants which had taken place 
there in 1641 and which were still unavenged. This 
outrage on the feelings of the Protestants of Great 
Britain was a blunder which alienated many of his 
own supporters. The charge of proposing to use an 
Irish army in England had cost Strafford his head. 

The King did not take the warning : on the contrary 
he endeavoured to carry out the scheme, and he had 
ultimately to pay the same terrible penalty. But for 
the present the numbers of his forces were augmented, 
and it was with considerably increased strength that 
in January, 1644, Prince Maurice broke up his leaguer 
before Plymouth and marched back again in the 
direction of Bristol. His design most probably was 
to join the King in a combined movement upon London 
through the southern counties, but he had all spring 
before him, and that insolent little fisher-village of 
Lyme, which had defied him in the autumn, lay tempt- 

'■ Whitlock, i. 236. 


ingly near his path. He would just take it en route, 
and have that triumph at least as a feather in his 
cap when he rejoined the Court, to wipe out the 
recollection of Plymouth. He carried with him a 
powerful siege train, and his united army, of Irish, 
Cornish, and English, amounted to over 7,000 : indeed 
its numbers are put by some writers as high as 20,000. 

Lyme, with its feeble fortifications and its petty 
garrison, would hardly be likely to detain him more 
than a single day. But the people of Lyme, in spite 
of the appalling odds against them, prepared to make 
him fight for his laurels. Colonel Ceely gathered re- 
inforcements both of men and ammunition when and 
where he could. On February 21 Colonel Were, who 
had been sent by Sir William Waller to his assist- 
ance, landed at Lyme, and all his forces, together 
with the garrison of the town, were drawn forth on 
Lyme Hill. Thence a party under Colonel Peyto 
was sent to Studcombe House and Axmouth^ to 
secure them, and Colonel Were, with his officers and 
300 foot, advanced to Studcombe House, intending to 
fall upon Colyton-, but by Ceely's orders was held 
back from so doing. The Royalist commander how- 
ever, without waiting to be attacked, succeeded in 
turning the tables on Were, for he captured him and 
most of his men and took them prisoners to Colyton. 

The fugitives who escaped brought the news into 
Lyme, and Captain Thomas Pine, with a strong party 
from the garrison, salhed out that same night and 
reached Colyton. The Royalists were 'in jollity for 
their success,' and, as the event proved, rather too 
much so for their own safety, for Pine in his turn 
surprised them, and took captive the colonel, several 

1 Five miles west of Lyme. '' Three miles north of Axmouth. 


officers, and sixty soldiers, and rescued all the pri- 

Colonel Ceely's next sally was eastwards, and on 
March 3, by command of the council of war. Captain 
Townsend drew out a 'hundred firelocks' and fell 
upon Bridport \ where he surprised 150 of the Royalist 
horse very successfully: this time however Colonel 
Ceely had no mind to risk a repetition of the Colyton 
performance, and he and Captain Pine, advancing with 
horse and foot to Chidwick Hill, secured Townsend's 
return in safety 2. But an auxiliary far more important 
than unlucky Colonel Were reached Lyme Regis be- 
fore Prince Maurice closed in upon it. When Fiennes 
surrendered Bristol, after only a few hours' fighting, 
there was a commander in the strongest of his forts, 
that on Prior's Hill, who had resisted so stoutly the 
repeated assaults made on him, and so completely 
beaten off the Royalist attack on his part of the lines, 
that he declined to believe the report of the surrender 
of the town, when it reached his ears. Fiennes in his 
frantic haste had actually forgotten to apprise him of 
the treaty, and the brave Captain Blake was within 
an ace of being hanged by Rupert for what appeared 
to be a breach of it. He went free however, and in 
reward for the splendid defence he had made of Prior's 
Hill he was promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel and 
was appointed to Popham's regiment. 

When Maurice advanced upon Lyme, and help was 
wanted, Blake with a handful of his soldiers threw 
himself into the town and became the heart and soul 
of its defence. The fortifications of Lyme consisted 

■ Ten miles east of Lyme. 

" Diary of tiie siege of Lyme appended to a letter from the Earl of War- 
wick ; King's Pamphlets, Numero 160, Pamphlet 25, British Museum. 


of a dry ditch, a few earthworks hastily thrown up, 
and three small batteries, named respectively Davies' 
Fort, Gun Cliff, and the Fort at the Cobb Gate. Two 
large blocks of buildings, Colway House and Haye 
Farm, standing on opposite sides of the valley in which 
Lyme Regis Hes, and beyond the hne of earthworks 
which connected the three forts, were occupied as 
outposts \ 

Prince Maurice, after leaving Tavistock, where he 
had lingered for a while, moved directly upon Lyme, 
picking up four of his Irish regiments en route. A MS. 
history of the siege ^ which was discovered in White 
Lackington House in 1786, says : — 

' On the 20th of April the enemy appeared on a certain 
hill called Uplyme Hill, about two miles distant from Lyme 
Regis, where the soldiers were mustered, and as it grew near 
the evening, they drew towards the town about three-quarters 
of a mile nearer the edge of the hill, and ordered the whole 
body of horse and foot in view of all the town, as was judged 
and discovered through the perspective glasses, in abreast 
three or four troops, in length a mile or thereabouts, to the 
number of about 4000. In the town were near 500 fighting 
men, more or less, who were not a jot dismayed at the sight 
of the enemy, but rather longed to have dealt with them, and 
so they shouted to the enemy, and the enemy answered them 
with shouting.* 

Haye and Colway House, however, were untenable 
against such a host, and the outposts had to be with- 
drawn within the lines. 

The Prince now sent a trumpeter to Blake and Ceely 
with a summons to surrender, but Blake had not come 
there to yield to a summons, and Colonel Ceely was 

> Hepworth Dixon's Life of Blake, pp. 40, 41. 

^ Quoted by Geo. Roberts in his History of Lyme, ed. 1823, pp. 40-64. 


a man of a very different quality to Fiennes. Their 
answer was a defiance, to which Mercurius Aulicus^ 
states they insolently added that they would grant no 
quarter to any Irish or Cornish. 

Such a reply exasperated Prince Maurice to the 
utmost. He impetuously ordered his trumpeters to 
sound a general charge. The footmen slung a shower 
of hand-grenades into the town, and the horse, taking 
advantage of the confusion caused by their exploding, 
actually tried to ride over the works and carry the 
place by a rush. But they were met by volley after 
volley of musketry from the firelocks, and after a vain 
effort to face the hail of bullets, they fell back, and 
drew off out of range. The foot were then formed up 
in columns and brought up to the attack : again and 
again they tried to storm, but were met by the same 
deadly hail, and again and again were driven back 
with the loss of their best and bravest leaders. Then 
Maurice himself spurred his horse into their broken 
ranks, rallied them, and bade them charge once more ; 
but the men were disheartened and would not go on, 
till in his wrath the Prince formed his cavalry in their 
rear, and, by pistol shots from behind, drove them 
forward. But as before, the besieged were ready for 
them, and meeting their advance with salvoes of mus- 
ketry and case-shot sent the broken columns reeling 
back in hopeless disorder. The attempt to take the 
town by assault had failed. 

It was now clear to Prince Maurice that if he was 
determined to make himself master of this ' little vile 
fishing town' he must lay regular siege to it. He 
was loath to postpone his march for the purpose, but 
dread of the displeasure of Charles, and of the ridicule 

• A newspaper published at Oxford on the King's side. 


which such a failure would draw on him in the cen- 
sorious circles of the Court, made him even more loath 
to pass on and leave Lyme untaken. He decided that 
it must be forced at all hazards ; so he made Colway 
House his headquarters, and threw up batteries for his 
siege guns on the hills commanding the town. Day 
after day from these guns he plied the brave defenders 
with shot, and they on their part by day and night 
laboured, men and women alike, to build up their ram- 
parts faster than he could beat them down. At times, 
when there was a lull in the firing, the women even 
put on red cloaks to make them look like soldiers, and 
mounted the ramparts, while the outwearied fighting 
men took their rest. 

Time after time Maurice, believing that his cannonade 
had mastered the fire of the defenders, formed up his 
columns for new assaults, and sent them desperately 
on to charge those feeble but firmly held lines, and 
the best blood in England flowed freely in those fatal 
trenches. One evening. May 6, under cover of a thick 
fog, the stormers actually got over the works and into 
the town, but so steady was the garrison, and so wise 
were Blake's tactics, that the defenders recovered the 
hnes that had been passed, and cut off the companies 
which had succeeded in entering the place, so that, 
taken in front, flank, and rear, they perished almost 
to a man. 

Prince Maurice lost near 500 men that night. Cap- 
tain Blewitt, one of his best officers, lay dead upon the 
trench, with two bullets through his body and another 
in his head. Maurice sent the next day to beg for 
Blewitt's body, which favour Blake granted on con- 
dition that his men were not molested in collecting the 
arms that lay on the field. Maurice acceded to this, 


but refused a further request, that he would give up 
Mr. Harvey, Ceely's brother-in-law, whom he had 
arrested in the country. Blewitt's corpse, besmeared 
with blood and dirt, was found and washed and put 
into a new shroud and coffin ; but Maurice declined to 
give up his prisoner Harvey, saying that they could 
keep the dead body if they pleased. 

Blake was nettled at the insulting message, but he 
had the coffin taken to the lines opposite Holme Bush, 
one of Maurice's batteries, and signalled to the heralds 
to come for it. ' Have you,' said he scornfully, as they 
approached, — ' have you any command to pay for the 
shroud and coffin?' They answered, 'No.' Curling 
his whiskers with his fingers, he replied with disdain, 
' Nevertheless, take them ; we are not so poor but that 
we can give them to you ^.' 

Later in the day there was another parley, and a 
Royalist general, in an interview with Blake, pointed 
out to him as an old soldier the weakness of the works, 
and the certainty that they must soon fall. ' We do 
not trust in our works,' was Blake's answer ; ' and you 
may tell your Prince, that if he wishes to come into the 
towri with his army to fight we will pull down ten or 
twelve yards, so that he may come in ten abreast, and 
we will fight him.' 

One can imagine the effect of this spirited reply in 
kindling the pride of those of Blake's soldiers who 
heard it, and how the story would fly around from 
group to group of those who manned the defences. 

Provisions and powder now began to run short in 
Lyme, and by May 23 the garrison were reduced to 
great straits. But in the nick of time came the stout 
Earl of Warwick with a little fleet, and brought them 

' Dixon's Life of Blake, p. 47. 


enough food and ammunition to enable them to hold 
out a while longer. 

Maurice made a desperate attempt to prevent them 
from receiving this relief; one of his storming parties 
actually reached the Cobb, and burned the shallops 
in the harbour : vainly however, for Warwick and his 
ships were anchored outside, beyond the range of the 
batteries; unfortunately, though, the vahant Captain 
Thomas Pine met his death-wound in repelling them. 
But by night the supplies were landed, and the besieged 
took heart again. 

On May 27, when Captain Pine was being buried 
with the honours of a soldier's funeral and volleys were 
being fired over his grave, the enemy took advantage 
of it to try once more the ' imminent deadly breach,' 
only to be hurled back once more with dreadful loss. 

The stubborn obstinacy of the defence was at least 
equalled by the pertinacity of the attack ; shame, rage, 
and the desire to avenge so many brave men's deaths, 
urged Maurice to a final effort. Three thousand men 
were chosen from the Cavalier ranks, arranged in three 
solid columns, and ordered to support one another in 
the attack. Blake on his side got 300 seamen frorti the 
fleet, which brought his forces Up to 1200. Maurice 
began by a heavy cannonade. ' The mariners were at 
first very fearful and would have withdrawn, but the 
rest of them (the townsmen) very courageously stood 
to it, reprehending some of them for their timorousness.' 
A month's service under Blake had turned the towns- 
men into seasoned veterans. 

Then, when the cannonade was supposed to have 
done its work, the terrible storming columns came on. 
There was no flinching this time. It was now or never. 
But the defenders met them with equal resolution. The 


women filled the soldiers' bandoliers while they fought. 
One woman herself fired sixteen musket shots. Men 
fought hand to hand till the very stream that supplied 
the town with water ran red with blood. ' The third 
assault was the most violent, but it was repulsed, and 
there was a remitting of the former furie, and about 
9 an almost general silence.' Maurice's last effort had 

Townsend had now become a Major, promoted per- 
haps on Captain Pine's death, and in the final defeat of 
the enemy he nearly shared the fate of his late comrade 
in arms. ' Major Townsend,' says the account of the 
fighting contained in a letter sent by the Earl of War- 
wick's secretary to London, ' was shot in the head, but 
still lives ^.' 

Warwick himself, in his own report to the Speaker of 
the Peers' House, praises the defenders of Lyme in the 
warmest terms. 

'The truth is, next to the protection of Heaven, the 
courage and honesty of the officers and souldiers were in a 
manner their sole defence, they being made instrumental! 
and through God's blessing to the preserving them in safety 
and cheerefulnesse. When I came amongst the officers I 
found them all worthy of precious esteem, and modestly sub- 
mitting to the many inconveniences which a long and hard 
siege had contracted.' 

London was by this time ringing with stories of the 
valour of the defence, and Essex was specially enjoined 
by Parliament to move his army to the relief of Lyme. 
He was slow, but he arrived in Dorset at last; and 

■ An exact and true relation in relieving the resolute garrison of Lyme in 
Dorsetshire, by the Rt. Hon. Earl of Warwicke, Lord High Admiral of 
England. Besieged by Prince Maurice, the Lord Inchiquin and his Irish 
rogues, together with the Lord Paulet. King's Pamphlets, i6o. 23. The're 
are also two copies of this pamphlet in the Bodleian Library. 


Maurice, fearing to be taken in the rear, sullenly and 
reluctantly withdrew his sadly diminished forces. Be- 
fore dismantling his batteries he fired from them for a 
whole day red-hot shot into the town, and succeeded in 
setting several houses in flames, but the fires were put 
out as fast as they started, and no general conflagration 

On June 13 Essex was reported to be at Dorchester, 
and about two in the morning Maurice drew off his 
artillery, and his army divided, part to Bristol, and part 
with himself to Exeter. One story goes that as the last 
of the great guns was being tugged by the labouring 
oxen over the brow of the steep hill above Lyme, Blake 
sent a parting shot after it, which broke up the team, 
and the gun was in consequence abandoned. Mercurins 
Aulicus, however, will have no such tales. 

'And though some false and malicious persons (as there 
be too many) had caused an unworthy rumour to be raised 
among us, reporting that the Prince had left four pieces of 
cannon in the works behind him, yet upon better information 
it proved nothing, his highness having carefully removed 
all his carriages before he raised his siege or forsook his 

At all events the siege was raised, whether Maurice 
left a gun behind him or no, and Lyme, for the present, 
was saved. How long it was before Major Townsend 
recovered from his wound at Lyme we have no means 
of knowing. The garrison was by no means inactive, 
though, and began to stir abroad again. 

Prince Maurice, on his way to Exeter, had left a 
strong garrison in Wareham, under Lord Inchiquin's 
brother. Colonel O'Brien, and Essex on his march west 
summoned the place on June 21, but being denied, 
passed it by and went on to Chard. 


On August 10, however, the ex-Royalist, Sir Anthony 
Ashley Cooper, who had lately joined the Parliament, 
and was now the chief commander of the Dorset forces, 
drew about 1200 horse and foot out of Lyme, Poole, 
and Weymouth (which had yielded to Essex), and came 
before the town and began to storm the outworks. 
Upon this Colonel O'Brien desired a parley, and pre- 
sently agreed to surrender the place and return with 
his men to Ireland. 

This very easy victory was an agreeable surprise to 
the Parliamentary forces ; but the reason of it was not 
hard to explain. Colonel O'Brien was under the in- 
fluence of his elder brother, and M'^Murrough O'Brien, 
Lord Inchiquin, happened just now to be changing 
sides in the great struggle. His ostensible reason was 
that he could not endure the cessation or armistice 
which had been concluded in Ireland between Charles 
and the rebels who had been guilty of the massacre 
of 1641. His correspondence with Ormonde, however, 
in these months of May and June 1644, show that he 
deeply resented the influence of Lord Muskerry at the 
Court. ' He has told such a tale of me to his Majesty, 
as proves exceedingly prejudicial to me, having some 
shadow of truth in it, and my tale unheard \' are his 
words to Ormonde in a letter in which he says that 
Muskerry is at Padstow waiting to cross over to Mun- 
ster by Inchiquin's frigate. 

After the death of the late president of Munster, Sir 
William St. Leger, Inchiquin's father-in-law, Inchiquin 
himself, who had hitherto fought for the King and had 
been most energetic in sending over Irish troops to 
his aid, had expected to receive the vacant appointment, 
and now Charles had given the place to Muskerry, 

' Inchiquin to Ormonde, Cork, June 14, 1644; Carte Papers. 


who was actually the head of the rebels there. The 
upshot of it all was that on July 17, 1644, Inchiquin 
formally renounced his service under Charles, and the 
next day offered his allegiance to the Parliament. It 
was accepted, and the speedy surrender of Wareham 
by his brother was but an earnest of what his adhesion 
might bring. It is believed that the adroit persuasions 
of Lord Broghill, son of the great Earl of Cork, had 
no small share in the work of bringing about Lord 
Inchiquin's defection, which proved a great blow to 
the royal cause in Munster, of which province the Par- 
liament, after a few months' delay to test the sincerity 
of their new supporter, appointed him to be President 
in opposition to Charles's nominee, Lord Muskerry. 
Inchiquin, as it happened, turned with the tide. 

Till this summer of 1644, the course of the war may 
be said to have been, on the whole, in Charles's favour. 
But at Marston Moor, in Yorkshire July 3), Rupert 
recklessly assailed a superior force of English and 
Scots (for the Scots had now come), who had the 
advantage of position as well as of numbers. His army 
contained the flower of the Cavalier forces and fought 
most valiantly, but his generalship was at fault: he 
was utterly beaten and, in a military sense, annihilated. 

The loss of a very large number of the King's best 
officers was irreparable, and the royal cause never 
recovered from it, although Charles himself marched 
into the West, and joining the army of Prince Maurice, 
succeeded in utterly out-manoeuvring Essex, whose 
generalship proved of the feeblest. 

The men of Lyme did their best to help poor Essex. 
Blake, who had thrown himself into Taunton, which 
he held till the close of the war, with a pertinacity 
equal to that he had shown at Lyme, harassed Charles's 


communications as much as he could on the Bristol 
Channel side, while the Lyme men themselves actually 
fell upon the rear of the royal army at Chard, and 
' there they took eleven brave horses with rich saddles, 
supposed to be the King's own saddle horses, and 
divers prisoners ^' Indeed Clarendon notes that on 
Charles's return from his successful expedition in the 
West, one of the things to be provided for before 
leaving Exeter was to block up the troops of Lyme, 
' which were grown more insolent by the success they 
had had, and made incursions sometimes even to the 
walls of Exeter ' ; and some of the Exeter garrison 
under Sir John Berkley were assigned to this duty^. 
Ceely, however, though Blake had gone to Taunton, 
showed himself an apt pupil, and when in order to 
carry out this plan three hundred of the royal forces 
came to Axminster to fortify it and to straiten Lyme, 
he fell upon them, and at the second charge routed 
them, killed Major Walker, two captains, two lieu- 
tenants, and several common soldiers, took four pieces 
of ordnance, many arms and prisoners, and released 
fifty gentlemen who had been by them taken prisoners 
from their homes ^ 

But no diversion could succeed in helping a helpless 
general. Essex was driven to surrender his army, he 
himself making his escape by water to Plymouth. This 
success of Charles, however, was no real recovery of 
power for him. In fact, the defeat of Essex was in 
some sort a gain to the side of the Parliament, for it 
only led to Essex being himself retired, so that his 
weakness no longer stood in the way of decisive action. 

The Self-denying Ordinance was passed, by which 

' Whitlock, 286. ^ Clarendon, iv. 573, end of Sept. 1644. 

3 Whitlock, 338. 



Essex, Manchester, and the rest of the members of 
either house who held military commands, laid them 
down, and the New Model Army under Fairfax and 
Cromwell (who though a member was allowed to keep 
his military rank) was formed. 

In this New Model the hard-fighting Independents 
had a very much larger share of power than had pre- 
viously fallen to their lot. Its discipline was strict, 
and as a mihtary engine it was the most effective 
organisation that the war had yet produced. The New 
Model met the army of Charles at Naseby, on June 14, 
1645, and after a desperate struggle overthrew it com- 
pletely. Charles himself showed great personal gal- 
lantry, but it was all in vain, and he had to fly the 
field, a beaten man. 

Swiftly and steadily the New Model Army moved 
across the country, taking town after town, and finally 
cooped up the scattered remnants of the Royalist 
armies in the West, driving them back into the coun- 
ties of Somerset, Dorset, Devon, and Cornwall. 

Here, in this district, in this third year of actual 
warfare, there arose a popular movement which was 
unlike anything that had yet taken place. For three 
years the rival armies had marched up and down the 
country, and the outrages and devastations, the levy- 
ings and forced contributions, that the peasantry had 
endured, now at last caused them to rise up in wrath 
and cry 'A plague on both your houses. We want 
peace.' Armed with rustic weapons — they were known 
as the clubmen— they bade the fighters cease. 

It is impossible not to sympathise much with them. 

' Delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi.' 

King and Parliament might be at loggerheads up in 
London, but it was hard for John Nokes in a Dorset 


cottage to see why either of them should seize his 
stock or waste his fields in order to settle their differ- 
ences. These West-country peasants had yet to learn 
that there are no neutrals in a civil war, and that a 
demand for peace, just when one party has got the 
other by the throat, is but coming to the rescue of the 

On July 7, 1645, there was a petition read in the 
House of Peers, from the clubmen, ' that divers garri- 
sons in the County of Dorset and Wilts, might be 
demolished, or that for such as might be continued 
they might have liberty to place such persons of their 
own counties as they should select.' 

But now the Parliament was up, and the King was 
down, and a cessation of arms could only have the 
effect of giving the King's party time to recover them- 
selves, and preventing the victorious New Model from 
following up its success at Naseby. The clubmen's 
proposal stirs the wrath of a good Puritan journalist 
in the Ti'itc Informer. 'A pretty notion,' he writes, 
'and likely to be granted, is it not, think you? The 
Malignants would be sure to get in those of the 
Royal parties, and where were then all the Parliament 
garrisons ^ ? ' 

Precisely: the garrison of Lyme had a very clear 
idea of where they would be if the clubmen had their 
way, and they proposed to submit to nothing of the 
kind. A Parliamentary officer. Colonel Pindar, sent a 
message to Fairfax, the Lord General, but the clubmen 
fell upon him, and captured the despatches and stripped 
him of his horse and arms. Goodall, the messenger, 
succeeded notwithstanding in making his escape, and 
on hearing of it, Colonel Ceely with some of his 

' King's Pamphlets. 
C 2 


regiment promptly pursued and overtook them. They 
proved to be led by an officer of Goring's. 

Goring, who M^as now the King's general in the 
South-west, a lawless man himself, and a bad disci- 
plinarian, naturally encouraged this irregular popular 
movement. The triumphant clubmen defied Ceely to 
fight, but they rued their error. He and his veterans 
of Lyme fell upon them and routed them, and eighty 
of the clubmen were killed. Nevertheless they must 
have made a stout bid for victory, for Ceely himself 
was wounded, and his Major unhorsed. Doubtless, 
though his name is not mentioned, it was Major Towne- 
send who accompanied his Colonel on this adventure. 

These clubmen, whose numbers rose to as many as 
ten thousand, were finally dispersed by Cromwell, 
near Shaftesbury, a month later, but the movement 
did not entirely die out till Fairfax had driven the 
King's army of the west to surrender in Cornwall. 

The chivalrous Sir Ralph Hopton had, at the 
eleventh hour, accepted most unwillingly the com- 
mand of this mutinous and undisciplined army, being 
urgently pressed to do so by Charles ; but the change 
had come too late ; the Royalist cause was now sink- 
ing fast, and in March, 1646, he was compelled by 
his own men to let them give themselves up to Fair- 
fax at Truro. 

From this ignominious surrender, however, he ex- 
cepted the strongly fortified castles of Pendennis and 
St. Michael's Mount, and even reinforced their garri- 
sons from those among his troops who shared his 
own determination never to yield to what they deemed 
the usurping Parliament. 

That Parliament had another stroke of luck, for just 
at this juncture an Irish ship put in at Padstow, on 


the north coast of Cornwall, and was at once taken 
possession of by the Parliament men. The master, 
finding himself in hostile hands, threw overboard a 
packet of letters, but they were rescued, and proved 
to contain letters from Lord Glamorgan, who had been 
sent into Ireland by Charles to get the Irish Catholics 
to send an army to his aid. Loud were the cries for 
vengeance all over England when these letters were 

Ten thousand men had been promised him from 
Ireland, but before they had time to arrive — if indeed 
it was ever intended to send them — Charles had no 
army left for them to join. He had ordered Sir Jacob 
Astley, who had 3000 men with him at Worcester, to 
join him at Oxford, where he hoped to assemble a 
sufficient force to enable him to await the anticipated 
succours from Ireland. Astley started, but he got no 
further than Stow-in-the-wold, where he was caught 
by Brereton and Morgan, 1800 of his troops killed 
or captured, and the rest dispersed. The old hero 
was worn out with the fatigues of the conflict, and the 
Roundhead soldiers brought him a drum to sit upon. 
' Now, gentlemen,' said he, as he sat down, to the 
officers around him, 'you have done all your work 
and may go to play, unless you prefer to fall out 
among yourselves.' 

Charles had no longer a force in the field, but 
Oxford and the various castles throughout the country 
which were held for him, had yet to be reduced by 

No sooner had Fairfax received the surrender of 
Hopton's army at Truro, than he decided to examine 
the works of Pendennis Castle, with a view to its 
capture. It stands on a bold promontory 200 feet 


above the sea, on the western side of the entrance to 
Falmouth harbour. It was held by Arundel of Trevose, 
with a strong garrison, and was the most important 
post to the Royahsts in the South-west, both from its 
impregnable site, and its command of the harbour. 

Fairfax sent two regiments, Colonel Ingoldsby's and 
Colonel Hammond's, to occupy the village of Penny- 
combequick, and Sir Peter Killigrew's house, Ard- 
winkle, in order to block up the garrison on the land- 
side. They arrived only just in time to save the 
house and village from being completely destroyed by 
Arundel's soldiers ; indeed they were too late to pre- 
vent most of Ardwinkle being burnt down, as it lay 
within half musket-shot of the outworks of Pendennis, 
and it was a matter of great importance to the defence 
to level it to the ground. 

Next day Fairfax himself arrived, and proceeded 
to view the works ; a matter • of some risk, for on the 
north side of the port there lay a king's ship, mounting 
forty guns. She was stranded, but she could use her 
teeth for all that, and let fly at the Lord General's 

' Their shot,' says the narrator of the story, ' by God's 
mercy did us no harm, though the bullets flew very near us, 
and one grazed not far from me, which we found, and it was 
a bullet of some i2lbs. weight. As soon as the General came 
to Perin,' he continues, ' he caused a summons to be drawn 
up, and sent it by his drum-major unto the Governor of the 
castle, requiring him to yield it unto him for the use of the 
Parliament, using divers reasons to persuade him thereto. 
But Arundell of Trevesse, who is the governor thereof, gave 
him a peremptory denial, saying that he was seventy years 
old and could not have many days to live, and therefore 
would not in his old years blemish his honour, in surrender- 
ing thereof, and would be rather found buried in the ruins 


thereof than commit so vile a treason (or words to that 
effect). Questionless the place is very strong, as well by its 
natural situation (it being almost an island and situated on a 
rising hill) as by Art and great industry, and it is victualled 
as they say for nine or ten months, and they have in it about 
1000 or 1200 men, all desperate persons and good soldiers ; 
and they have powder and shot great store and at least 
eighty great guns mounted, besides forty in the ship that lies 
on the north side the Castle. Therefore the general re- 
solves to block it up by land and sea . . . 2000 foot would 
keep them in \' 

Under the superintendence of Colonel Hammond the 
lines of fortification were drawn across the isthmus, and 
the garrison was blocked up ; but the work was not 
done without a serious loss, for on March 31 the 
Weekly Account reports that 

' This day came the unwelcome news of the death of that 
religious and truly valiant gentleman Colonel Ingoldsby, 
' who with other commanders going to view Pendennis, re- 
ceived a shot from the enemy who lay in ambush behind a 
mud wall.' 

The wound was mortal, and Ingoldsby died within 
three hours. 

Colonel Hammond having finished the lines and 
strengthened his forces by the addition of some Cornish 
troops, left Colonel Richard Fortescue to continue the 
siege while he proceeded to assail St. Michael's Mount. 
Admiral Batten blockaded Pendennis by sea, and the 
place began to be pressed. Stories soon got about as 
to the behaviour of the garrison. 

' As for Pendennis,' says the Moderate Intelligencer, ' they 
are blades of the right sort, and having two hundred tun 

> Truro, March 19, 164-g, T. M. In Nni'sfapeis, 1646, vol. i, British 


of wine spare not to be daily drunk, and this the governor 
encourages that their discontents take not overmuch hold on 
them, which are very great already. They are at sixpence 
per diem, nor will that hold long.' 

They did hold out five long months, nevertheless, 
after this too triumphant prophecy was in print, but 
the Moderate Intelligencer was no less fallible than 
our nineteenth-century papers, and the writer may be 
excused for saying what he thought would please his 
readers; nor was he the only one just then who did 
so, for the Perfect Diurnall of April 20 reports that — 

' A captain in Pendennis came off with eighty men. We 
understand in Pendennis they have nothing but salt beef 
tainted, and cannot subsist long. But little bread and their 
wine almost spent, we hope well of the place.' 

Meantime, where was Major Townesend during Fair- 
fax's march into Cornwall? Most probably he was in 
Dorset with his regiment. Ceely's regiment was not 
one of those which had been taken to form the New 
Model Army when the Parliamentary forces were re- 
organised under Fairfax ; neither was it disbanded at 
that time, like some others, but remained, as it was 
before, a part of the local forces under the Parlia- 
mentary committee for Dorset. 

Colonel Ceely himself had been elected to Parlia- 
ment in 1645 as member for Bridport, in the place of 
Giles Strangways, who had been disabled for mahg- 
nancy in 1644. He had gone up to Westminster to sit, 
but he still retained his colonelcy. The Self-denying 
Ordinance was really only passed to get rid of Essex 
and Manchester. It had succeeded in its purpose and 
now was no longer needed. As soon as the Cavalier 
forces began to melt away and the Parliament felt its 
hold on the country strengthened, elections had been 


held for a number of seats which had been vacated 
like Bridport. 

The Ordinance did not apply to the members chosen 
at these elections, and 'among the ' Recruiters,' as these 
new members were called, were many officers of the 
army, not a few of them Independents. 

Colonel Ceely being occupied with his Parliamentary 
duties, the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel was conferred 
upon Major Townesend, and he was placed in command 
of the regiment; and now, when Pendennis held out 
contrary to the hopes of the besiegers, he was sum- 
moned with his regiment to take a part in the blockade. 
This proved to be a matter of some time. Various 
efforts were made by the King's partisans in France 
to throw supplies into Pendennis, but the vigilance of 
Batten defeated them all. Hope of succour by land 
there could be none, for Charles had no longer an 
army. In fact Charles himself had become a prisoner, 
for at the end of April he fled from Oxford to escape 
the advance of Fairfax upon that city, and threw him- 
self into the hands of the army of the Scots at 

But, succour or no succour, old Arundel of Trevose, 
'game to the toes,' as the rhyming phrase went, was 
fixed in his determination to hold out to the bitter 
end. In July his condition was almost desperate. 
Some ships from St. Malo were sent to relieve him 
if possible, but contrary winds drove them back to 
Morlaix. Perhaps had they reached the English shore 
they might have found the task beyond their powers, 
for Admiral Batten kept a most vigilant guard. Every 
night he sent ten large boats and barges well manned 
to patrol the harbour entrance within range of the 
castle, drawing them off at daybreak. 


'One morning,' says Sprigge, 'when he was newly drawn 
ofF, a shallop got in by stealth, which caused great triumph 
in the castle : but 'twas conceived (and Colonel Fortescue 
was so informed by good hands) that litde relief was in it, 
save a hogshead or two of wine.' 

Summoned once more to surrender by Colonel 
Fortescue, Arundel refused without a special warrant 
from the King, asking his besieger to let him send 
to the King for it, 'as but a common courtesie.' 
Fortescue did not understand it so, and declined to 
allow any communication. Arundel repeated his re- 
quest, naming this time Prince Charles (afterwards 
Charles 11, now with the queen in France), as one 
whose warrant he would obey. Fortescue was equally 
obdurate. Arundel had killed all his horses for food 
and made a sally in boats to try to bring in rehef. 
He was beaten back with loss. An agent from the 
King of Spain came and proposed. Colonel Fortescue 
allowing him to enter for the purpose, that the Roman 
Catholics of the garrison should take service in 
Flanders under the King of Spain. They thanked 
Fortescue for his courtesy, and replied to the agent, 
' that at present they were engaged, but should they 
be once free, next to their present master they would 
serve his Majesty of Spain.' 

In the intervals of treating, hostilities were carried 
on with vigour, and though short of food the besieged 
had plenty of powder to expend, ' making 200 great 
shot in the space of three days at our men,' says 
Sprigge, ' but without any great execution, only three 
of our men being slain thereby.' 

On July 26 a shallop from the castle eluded Batten's 
vigilance and escaped to bear to the Prince the news 
of their hopeless condition. Fires were kept at night 


on the ramparts to guide their dehverers if ever they 
should come, but there were none to deliver them. 

The game was up. Arundel sent a letter to Colonel 
Fortescue to ask whether he had power to treat with 
him, and if that were so whether he could make good 
the conditions he might grant. Fortescue answered 
that he had power to treat and to make good the 
agreement. Arundel paused once more, but the sight 
of his half-starved soldiers decided him to accept a 
treaty. To persevere longer would only be to sacrifice 
the lives of so many faithful and brave men in vain. 
He submitted to the inevitable, and appointed com- 
missioners to treat on his behalf,— Sir A. Shipman, 
Lieut.-Col. R. Arundel, Col. Wm. Slaughter, Col. 
Charles Jennings, Col. Lewis Tremain, Nevill Bligh, 
Joseph Jeune, and Lieut.-Col. Brocker. 

To meet them the Col. R. Fortescue ^ sent Col. 
John St. Aubyn, the High Sheriff, Sir John Ayscue, 
Kt., Col. Robert Bennet, Lieut.-Col. Edward Herle, 
Lieut.-Col. Thomas Fitch, Lieut.-Col. Richard Towne- 
send, Major T. Jennings and Capt. W. Maynard. 

' Richard Fortescue is frequently mentioned during the Civil Wars as a 
Parliamentary officer of distinction, but no clue has been found to his place 
in the Fortescue family. As his landed estates were in Berkshire he may 
have belonged to the Salden House, who were connected with that county. 
The Thurloe State Papers, Whitlock's Memoirs and the Rawlinson MS. in 
the Bodleian are the chief sources of information concerning him. He was 
a Colonel in 1644 (Thurloe S. P. Ill, pt. 4, p. 649). 

In August 1646 he took Pendennis Castle, and was made Governor, and 
his name occurs in various expeditions and services until December 1654, 
when he is first mentioned in Thurloe. He was Commander-in-Chief in 
Jamaica, June 24, 1655, and Major-General. He was appointed to succeed 
General Venables as Governor in the event of the death of the latter officer, 
which took place soon after the arrival of Fortescue in the Island. There 
are several letters extant that passed between Cromwell and Fortescue. 
Fortescue's will was signed July 25, 1648 ; he died November 1655, and his 
will was proved by Mary his wife July 29, 1657. See Rawlinson MS. in 
the Bodleian, printed 27. 647. 

History of the Family of Fortescue, by Thomas Fortescue, Lord Clermont. 


They met on Monday, August lo, and parleyed, the 
Royalists making demands, the Roundheads offering 
propositions in vain, till Wednesday noon, and then, 
says the Moderate Intelligencer, 

' Their commissioners brake oflf in great discontent, and 
away. We might then give you the demands of each, but it 
will be superfluous. Colonel Fortescue finding this unex- 
pected rupture, contrived a way to bring on the treaty again, 
which took. Then upon this they began again Friday 14th, 
and agreed all by the 15th towards night save the time of 
surrender. The i6th they agreed on articles and signed 

Lieutenant-Colonel Townesend hastened to apprise 
his Colonel of the fact in a letter which has happily 
been preserved among the Tanner MS. ^ in the Bod- 
leian : — 

' Colonel Richard Townesend to Colonel Thomas Ceely. 


' I am just now going to meet the commissioners appointed 
to treat about the surrender of Pendennis : the articles are 
agreed upon by both parties and to be signed this morning, 
they are to march out to-morrow or Tuesday at furthest ; the 
soldier hath very honourable conditions — colours flying, 
trumpets sounding, drums beating, bag and baggage : and at 
the rendezvous which is within two miles to lay down their 
arms, their goods to be viewed ; and if any man of the country 
can upon good proof make any of those goods appear to be 
his, then and there to receive it, and the soldier in whose 
custody it is found shall lose all that he hath. The sum 
of the rest is according to the account I gave you the last 

' Sir, you have always expressed a great deal of care and 
love towards your regiment ; now it hath pleased God to 
finish the western work, and to bring it into a condition, no 

' Vol. lix. fol. 481. 


soldier in the kingdom in the like. I have often writ you 
that the most part have not wherewith to cover their naked- 
ness, yet never received from you the least engagement to 
supply us, to incite those to it that shoule relieve us. I need 
not urge our service nor the faithfulness of it, well known to 
the most part, though not well considered by any. 

' I desire to receive directions how to dispose of the regi- 
ment, and positively what employment and future mainten- 
ance we may expect : the committee of this county hath 
expressed a great respect towards us, and some of them 
desire to continue us here till the great affairs of the kingdom 
are better settled. Be pleased to afford a line or two con- 
cerning the Irish proceedings. 

I remain. Sir, 

Your faithful servant, 

Rich. Townesend. 
August 16, 
at Truro, 6 in the morning.' 

The letter is addressed on the back, 

'These for Colonell Thomas Ceely, a member of the 
House. Haste, post haste, for the especial service of the 

The terms were Kberal, and so was the treatment 
of the defeated party; possibly too much so, for we 
read that 

' The hunger-starved soldiers of Pendennis who came out 
thence, regaling too freely on victuals and drink, brought 
themselves into incurable diseases whereof many died, so 
that more men and women died by too often putting their 
hands to their mouths than by clapping their hands to their 
swords '.' 

Pendennis surrendered on August 16. On the fol- 
Jowing day Raglan submitted to Fairfax in person ^, 

' Hall's Parochial History of Cornwall, quoted by Capt. S. P. Oliver. 
' Sprigge, Ang. Rediv. pp. 302-334 ; Rushworth, Hist. Collections, pt. iv. 
vol. i. 295. 


and all England acknowledged the authority of the 
Parliament. We need not wonder at Colonel Towne- 
send's desire to be informed by the member for Brid- 
port as to the Irish proceedings. The war was over in 
England, but in Ireland, on the part of the Parliament, 
it can hardly have been said to have begun as yet in 
earnest. They did not however lose time about it. 
The Perfect Diurnall for August 24, says : — 

' A thanksgiving was ordered for the surrender of Ragland 
and Pendennis : the three regiments at the taking of Ragland 
to be sent to Munster and shipped from Pendennis.' 

It goes on to say : — 

■ £500 given by Fortescue at Pendennis to the adverse 
party to be repaid to him, as also £500 advanced by Batten 
for the same purpose.' 

The sagacious Roundhead commanders had built a 
golden bridge for their enemy's retreat. 

The Raglan regiments were sent to Munster, but 
those employed at Pendennis were not destined for 
that service as yet. Fortescue's regiment rejoined the 
main body of the New Model Army of which it was a 
part, and Colonel Townesend's, instead of remaining 
in Cornwall under the committee there who wished to 
keep them, was marched back into Dorset. 

It was not however stationed permanently at Lyme, 
the garrison of which was now disbanded, the war 
being over, like so many others all over England. It 
was probably used in different parts of the county to 
support the authority of the Dorset committee. The 
only actual information about it however for the re- 
mainder of this year that we possess relates not to 
any services it may have performed in enforcing se- 
questrations or suppressing clubmen, but to the fact 
that the worthy committee were careful to provide 


their soldiers with spiritual refreshment, for in their 
minute-book, which is fortunately still preserved in 
Dorset, we may read in the crabbed handwriting of 
the time :— 

'John Tucker has the public faith for one hundred twenty 
one pounds and two shillings due unto him as chaplain unto 
Colonell Towensend's (sic) regiment by order of the Lord 
Ffairfax his commission unto him directed for that place 
wherein he did officiate from the 20th day of April, 1646, 
unto the 15th day of April, 1647, at the rate of 8^. per diem, 
(dated) Jan. 29, 1649 (i. e. 1650).' 

Eightpence a day seems cheap for a minister, and 
would come to but ;^i2 for the 360 days mentioned, 
instead of .£"121. But if the rate should be read as 
eight shillings a day, the total comes out rather too 
much, as that would amount to ;^i44 for the same 
period. However that may be, the entry at least 
establishes the fact that the regiment was kept at the 
charges of the Dorset committee for the year sub- 
sequent to the surrender of Pendennis. 

That year was one which proved to be fraught with 
a struggle within the walls of Parliament hardly less 
important than the one which had just been decided 
in the field. 

' You may go play now, gentlemen,' said Astley, 
unless you prefer to fall out among your selves.' 
They did fall out among themselves, and to some 
purpose ; nor were they long in doing so. When the 
war began, most of the officers, hke the majority of 
the Parhament, were men who only desired to curb 
the power of the Bishops and fix some bounds to the 
prerogative of the King. Could this much be secured, 
they would have welcomed a peace that set Charles, 
whom they still regarded as something semi-sacred, 


once more upon the throne. But four years of strife 
had brought forward men of fiercer temper and wilder 
hopes, who felt no special awe for King or Parliament, 
priest or presbyter. These ardent spirits, Indepen- 
dents, Sectaries, Levellers, Anabaptists and the rest, 
were the heart and soul of the New Model, and it is 
no wonder that their growing predominance was 
viewed with great distrust by many, indeed one may 
say by all, of the Presbyterian party. 



The Presbyterian majority in the Houses dreaded 
the strength of their own army, and the war in England 
being over, thought it desirable to get rid of their 
dangerous servants as soon as possible, and so be 
left undisturbed to treat after their own slow and 
solemn fashion with the King, who was now in the 
hands of their own commissioners at Newark. A way 
to do this suggested itself to them. Ireland was still 
unpacified, and the massacre of the Protestants in 1641 
was still unavenged. To defeat Charles on Enghsh 
soil had been the first necessity, and this most pressing 
need had pushed the Irish question into the back- 
ground for the time being, although it was from Ireland 
that the spark had originally come which lit the whole 
civil conflagration. Now the subject need be postponed 
no longer, and the Irish war really might be a distinct 
help to the perplexities of the Parliament. 

If they could disband part of the army, the remainder 
might be safely bestowed in Ireland, and if they could 
give the Irish command to their own faithful friend, 
brave pious old Skippon, they would provide a possible 
rival to Cromwell, who was already suspected to be 
the silent, watchful, moving spirit of the troublesome 
military ' adjutators ' or agents elected by the soldiers. 

But the New Model Army had not the least intention 


of being put quietly by out of the way, and allowing the 
iron yoke of Presbyterianism to be imposed upon them 
thus. It would be an error to say that they were men 
who fought for toleration pure and simple. ' If by 
liberty of conscience,' wrote Cromwell to the Governor 
of Ross on a memorable occasion, ' you mean a Hberty 
to exercise the Mass, I judge it best to use plain deahng 
and to let you know where the Parliament of England 
have power, that will not be allowed of.' Rehgious 
toleration, which is now the very root of western civil- 
isation, had then barely dawned upon Europe. Only 
from the poor despised and persecuted sect of the 
Baptists was heard the plea for absolute liberty of 
conscience. At Amsterdam in 1611 they had declared, 
'The magistrate is not to meddle with religion or 
matters of conscience, nor compel men to this or that 
form of religion, because Christ is the King and Law- 
giver of the Church and Conscience.' To the Presby- 
terian such a sentiment was anathema ; the Indepen- 
dents, though less intolerant, had no such noble ideal 
before them. But practical necessity constrained them. 
A party made up of jarring sects must set up some 
sort of toleration if it is to remain a party at all. 
The Independents demanded mutual toleration for 
themselves and the Presbyterians, on the basis of a 
common action to suppress Episcopacy and Romanism. 
Would the Presbyterians of the House of Commons 
agree to this ? The Army closed in on London to 
see this question settled as they desired. The power 
of the sword lay with them. The Presbyterians had 
a majority in the House, and with them lay the right 
to legislate, so far as they had any right to legislate 
at all without a King. Which would carry the day? 
Meantime Charles daUied with both parties. ' I am 


not without hope,' he wrote, ' that I shall be able to 
draw either the Presbyterians or the Independents to 
side with me for extirpating one another, so that I shall 
be really King again.' He declined the suggestion of 
the Presb5^erians to estabhsh their form of worship 
and suppress everyone else. ' What will become of 
us,' said one of them, ' now that the King has rejected 
our proposals?' 'What would have become of us,' 
retorted an Independent, 'if he had accepted them?' 

The Army was full of suspicions and fears. It could 
trust few, but it knew and trusted the men who had led 
its prayer-meetings and won its victories, and without 
those leaders it refused to go to Ireland. Ireland truly 
needed ' settlement,' the reports from there describing 
' a huge blot, and indiscriminate blackness V but the 
' Ironsides ' had fought for the settlement of England, 
and that must be attended to first. They were begin- 
ning to see that Cromwell was the only man whom 
they could trust to settle anything anywhere, and at 
present Cromwell had no time for Ireland. 

Early in March 1647 the Houses voted that 12,000 
men should be employed in Ireland under Skippon 
and Massey: promptly in answer came the mutiny of 
regiment after regiment, and the Army ended by de- 
claring Massey to be a traitor. But the Irish affairs 
were pressing, and some troops must be sent. The 
New Model would not go, so the Houses were forced 
to send those who would. Officers who were well 
affected to the Parliament, and trusted to it for the 
work of reconstructing the government, volunteered 
their services and went obediently to the Irish wars, 
and many of them succeeded in inducing their regi- 
ments to do the same. Even in the New Model itself 

' Carlyle. 
D 2 


the Parliament had some backers. Colonel Fortescue 
presented an address to Fairfax protesting against the 
Army overawing the Parliament, and of his own regi- 
ment about 400 or 500 men actually went to Ireland. 
On April 26 a letter to the Parhament says, 'All of 
six companies of Col. Fortescue's regiment marched. 
Adjutant Gray Colonel over them.' Colonel Hunger- 
ford too was reported with others on April 19 as ready 
to start, and four regiments of Norfolk men volunteered 
to go. After the Restoration of Charles II a distinction 
was always drawn between the Parliamentary officers 
who went to Ireland before 1649 and those who accom- 
panied Cromwell thither in that year. Those who 
went before 1649 were technically supposed to be serv- 
ing the King and Parliament, even though the King 
was at the time a fugitive or a prisoner. 

On June 19, 1647, the Parliament ordered 'That 
Colonel Townesend and his regiment be hereby re- 
quired and commanded to be shipped and transported 
into Ireland for the service of the Kingdom ^.' In ac- 
cordance with this order. Colonel Townesend marched 
his regiment to the coast and there took ship. In the 
minute-book of the Parliamentary committee for Dorset 
previously referred to we find that the collectors of the 
British Assessment for the following year were ordered 
to allow to those liable to it — 

'All such charges as they have been at in the quartering 
of Colonell Jephsons regiment and Lieutenant Colonell 
Townsend his regiment in their march to the place of their 
embarquing for Ireland, as they shall make appear by ticket 
under the hands of some officer of the said regiments re- 
spectively . . . provided that the said allowance exceeds not 
12 pence for one horse and 6 pence for one man for the 24 

^ Commons' Journals, 1647. 


It is not mentioned what the place of their embarking 
was, but it was most likely Lyme itself, or possibly 
Bridport. Ten miles north of Bridport, and a little to 
the east of Lyme, there is a village called Corscombe, 
and 100 men of Colonel Townesend's regiment were 
quartered there, as we learn from the same authority, 
for nine days before starting. 

So while the Army lay coiled round London, de- 
manding the expulsion of the eleven members of the 
Presbyterian party in the House whom they declared 
to be traitors, and rejoicing in Cornet Joyce's coup-de- 
main which had brought the King into their power. 
Colonel Townesend and his men were tossing on the 
waves of the Irish Sea on their way to reinforce the 
ragged and starving army of Lord Inchiquin, which 
represented the power of the Enghsh Parliament in 

It was indeed a most distracted country to which 
they were sailing. For if at this moment Englishmen 
were divided into three parties, unhappy Ireland was 
being devastated by five or six. 

First were the old Irish, or natural Irish as they 
were called, Celtic in blood and to a large extent in 
language, Roman Cathohcs to a man ; they had most 
of them risen in rebellion in 1641, and they were now 
a powerful organisation with an army of their own in 
the field. They very earnestly repudiated the accusa- 
tion of complicity in the massacres which had thrilled 
England with horror at the outbreak of the rebellion ; 
the accounts, they said, had been very much exag- 
gerated, and such outrages as unfortunately had oc- 
curred were only due to roving guerilla bands and not 
to the true leaders of the movement for national inde- 
pendence. They were guided at this time by an Italian 


Archbishop, Rinucini, who had been sent over as papal 
Nuncio to compose some of the differences that agi- 
tated the country, but who proved to be a very fire- 
brand. The general of their army was Owen Roe 
O'Neil, ' Red Owen,' a prudent and experienced soldier 
who had held high commands in the Imperial and 
Spanish wars. His ideas were clear. ' God knows I 
hate and detest all English parties alike ' were his 
words, and his object was to make Ireland an inde- 
pendent Romanist State under the protection of one of 
the Catholic powers of the continent, probably Spain. 

Secondly there were the Anglo-Irish, or English 
Irish as they were called, a very different set of men. 
They were descended from the Lords of the Pale and 
the Anglo-Norman conquerors of Ireland. The Re- 
formation had never taken hold of Ireland as it did 
of England, and for the most part they were Roman 
Catholics still ; but they professed entire loyalty to 
Charles, and demanded only toleration for their religion 
and security for their estates, which latter had been 
much endangered by Strafford's late reign of ' thorough.' 
By this time, however, the tyranny of the Lords Jus- 
tices in Dublin (who represented there the EngHsh 
Government) had wellnigh driven them to desperation. 
They sent petition after petition to the King for rehef ; 
but the King was now a prisoner, and they decided 
that their only hope was to join their co-religionists, 
the followers of the Nuncio. Both these parties there- 
fore combined to establish a Provisional Government, 
carried on by a Confederate Council at Kilkenny, and 
the Anglo- Irish general, Preston, and his army received 
orders to co-operate with Owen Roe. Thus for the 
time being they were united, but the truce between 
them was a hollow one, for the followers of Rinucini 


looked with great suspicion upon their new alHes, who 
still nursed hopes of help from an English King and were 
provokingly moderate in their demands for concessions. 

Thirdly, up in the North were the Ulster Presby- 
terians, closely allied with their Scotch brethren, and 
fighting very much for their own hand under Munroe, 

Fourthly were the true Royalists, headed by the 
King's Lieutenant-general, the gallant and chivalrous 
Earl of Ormonde. The head of the noble family of 
Butler, he possessed large estates in Ireland, but had 
been brought up as a Protestant in England, and had 
been admitted to the Irish Privy Council by Strafford 
himself at the age of twenty-four. He owned a splendid 
castle of black marble at Kilkenny, and in this his 
enemies, the rebels' Confederate Council, were now 
holding their sessions, while he was cooped up by 
their armies in Dublin with a handful of starving and 
mutinous troops, thwarted by the Lord Justices and 
troubled by contradictory orders from the King; for 
Ormonde was too honest a man to be entirely trusted 
by Charles, whose favourite dream as we know was 
to recruit an Irish army for his English wars from 
among these very rebels. The King sent him one set 
of orders in pubHc, and contradicted them in private 
through the Queen's secretary, Digby, until Ormonde 
found his position intolerable. 

To these four we must add a fifth, the party of the 
English Parhament. The Parliament had no such 
grip on Ireland as it had on England, but its interests 
were represented in Dublin in great measure by the 
Lords Justices, who ever since the beginning of the 
rebeUion had occupied themselves in thwarting Or- 
monde's endeavours to suppress it, hoping to keep his 
army so busy that no men could be spared from it to 


reinforce the King in England, and hoping too, it is 
hinted, that the wider the rebellion spread, the richer 
would be the harvest of confiscations that would follow 
on its suppression. 

Perhaps we may even enumerate a sixth, for Lord 
Inchiquin in Munster was fighting very much for his 
own hand. Since his abandonment of the King in 
1644 he had been reckoned as an adherent of the 
Parliament, but neither party trusted the other very 
far. Inchiquin entirely declined to put himself into 
their power or to obey their orders except so far as 
suited his own purposes, while the Houses on their 
part stinted him of supplies, and this very spring, in 
April 1647, sent over Lord Lisle and his brother Alger- 
non Sidney to displace Inchiquin and give his com- 
mand to his former friend Broghill. Inchiquin decHned 
to give way and, his army being faithful to him, they 
had no power to enforce their commission to displace 
him, and Broghill for once returned unsuccessful to 
denounce his ex-convert as a traitor. Luckily for In- 
chiquin the Houses were too busy with accusations 
of their own members and fears of their own army at 
home to attend much just then to such a far-away place 
as Munster, and Inchiquin did his best to restore their 
confidence by hammering away at the rebels as hard 
as he could during the summer. 

Charles's party in Dublin had by this time become 
a vanishing quantity. Ormonde found himself com- 
pelled to relinquish his position there to one party or 
another. Nothing would induce him to yield to the 
rebels, so he chose to surrender his post to the English 
Parliament. The Houses had no one in Ireland that 
they trusted enough to receive it, so they sent a faith- 
ful and energetic soldier, Colonel Michael Jones, with 


fresh troops to Dublin, where he landed in June, and 
Ormonde formally handed over the capital and retired 
to France. 

The stoppage of supplies to Munster reduced In- 
chiquin to great straits ; his men were even compelled 
to subsist on any wild roots they could dig up. Thrown 
thus on his own resources he made a vigorous effort 
to supply their needs, and after he had successfully 
stormed Cahir, the fertile county of Tipperary lay open 
to his famished troops, so that actually, as the water- 
mills were destroyed, they had more corn than they 
could consume, and were obliged to burn ;£'2ooo worth ! 
His next great success was the storm of Cashel. He 
summoned the inhabitants of the town, offering to give 
them leave to depart on paying a heavy contribution, 
but as the magniiicent ecclesiastical buildings that 
crown the Rock of Cashel had been newly fortified, 
the garrison rejected his offer and retired into the 
Cathedral. Inchiquin stormed the Rock, put three 
thousand to the sword, and slew the priests under the 
very altar. In August he overran Kerry, taking booty 
right up to the gates of Limerick, but avoiding the 
strong places, on account, he said, of the difficulty of 
transport for his artillery. He took care to keep the 
Parhament informed of these successes, and as a result 
reinforcements were sent to him freely. 

But how loose his own allegiance to Parliament sat 
on him and his officers we may gather from the follow- 
ing letter printed in the Moderate Intelligencer, Aug. 
26. The writer, dating from Cork, says : — 

' Our condition here is strange ; the Officers of War under 
Lord Inchiquin were no sooner returned hither from Field 
but they began to contrive a way of quarrel with the Parlia- 
ment of England, the pretence being want of pay, discharge 


from service and such like, but the true reason conceived 
was to put somewhat in the scale against the Army in Eng- 
land and Parliament as it then stood, as they apprehended 
having the Army a rod over them.' 

We should remember that the army had occupied 
London the first week in August; a number of horse 
were encamped in Hyde Park ; troops were stationed 
round the House and on every avenue leading to it, so 
that by military force the Independents had now made 
themselves masters of the situation. 

The writer goes on : — 

' And that the design may not be thought in the least to 
countenance or accommodate the Rebels, it is declared that 
they resolve to go on against them with as great vigour as 
before, but yet they declare to the world that for the causes 
aforesaid they will not admit of any alteration in Government 
Martiall until their arrears are paid them, both what is due 
in England and Ireland, and until the Parliament of England 
be again free : these are the main pieces of the declaration 
which is large. At first the Lord President (Inchiquin) 
seemed not to have knowledge or hand in it, yet the Officers 
laboured in it and invited the other forces of that Kingdome 
in Parliament pay to the same, and were in hopes of a 
generall concurrence. But since then the Lord Inchiquin 
hath engaged to send the said Declaration unto Parliament 
in England.' 

Possibly Inchiquin was at the bottom of it all, as the 
writer, evidently no friend of his, plainly hints; but it is 
just possible too that he may have been playing the 
part of the French demagogue when he observed of his 
mob, ' Of course I must follow them. Am I not their 
leader ? ' Anyhow, this war-correspondent of the seven- 
teenth century continues :— 

'We are here about 7000 Horse and Foot, and having 
secured our garrison can march about 5000 into the field, 


which, had we a mind, might not only blocli up but take 
townes, no enemy appearing : but we follow the old way in 
England, get a town or castle or two and then come home 
and stay half a yeare before we go out again, making a little 
work go a long way. The regiments of my Lord Lisle, Sir 
Hardresse Waller, and Sir Arthur Loftus are given away 
by the Lord President. One Knighted by his Majesty for his 
good sen'ice done at the taking of Leicester (? Sir Robert 
Sterling) is made Colonel of Horse and chief Commissioner 
of the Horse in Munster, and it must not be wondered at that 
many such are put in places of command.' 

Plain speaking, truly! we need not wonder that the 
writer remained anonymous. 

One can easily imagine the savage sarcasms of the 
Royalist newspaper writers over the dissensions of 
their enemies. These unlicensed prints made fun of 
both factions. Merciiriits Melancholiciis for Sept. 11 
begins with verse : — 

'To the Presbyterians 

Your light is almost out ; it was not fire 
From God's own Altar taken, but his ire : 
What Heaven doth plant shall to perfection grow : 
If you be such, oh then ! why droop ye so ? 

To the Independents. 

Think not because ye are percht upon the throne 
You are cocke-sure of all, that all 's your owne : 
The game 's not lost as yet, but there I '11 sticke. 
An English game may have an Irish tricke.' 

Charles's dream of an Irish trick to turn the game in 
his favour had found a lodging in the brains of his fol- 
lowers. Mercurius goes on to banter the Parliament 
with what he insinuates are but victories on paper. 

' Newes, joyful newes from Ireland : the renowned Inchi- 
quin has banged Oneale to some tune : all that the Rogues 


and Kernes can boast of is, That one payre of heeles is worth 
two payre of hands, and had not the woods sheltered their 
retreat 'tis thought this battel had struck a bargain to a Mun- 
sterian conquest.' 

Alluding to a despatch of Inchiquin's after a battle near 
Limerick on his Kerry raid. Then he turns up his 
eyes and snuffles with the sanctimonious affectation he 
attributes to the saints, — 

' To a resolved spirit, perills are but enterludes : let us not 
thwart those high designs, those happy events, with selfe 
ends, sinister reaches and domestic squabbles ! ' 

These Royalist papers, surreptitiously printed and 
passed from hand to hand, are of course poorly off for 
news. They abound in ribaldry, and are untrustworthy 
to the last degree. They are not to be put at all in the 
same category as a paper like the Moderate Intelligencer, 
a weekly which is in many respects quite on a par with 
a high-class newspaper of the present day. But one 
can get a good deal of amusement out of their flouts 
and jeers at their conquerors, and sometimes rumours 
find a voice in them which the Puritan journals are 
less in a hurry to print. Mercurius Melancholicus 
evidently has hopes of Inchiquin's army, for next week 
he says, — 

'They talke of a Scotch invitation made to the Lord Inchi- 
quin and to Col. Jones governor of Dublin to join with the 
Blew Bonnets in Ulster (i.e. Munroe and his .Scots) against 
the Army in England. Perchance they might have thrived 
among the Rebels better, for birds of a feather willingly 
flocke together : Scots and Irish make one monster, and it 
is a hundred to one but they will come together.' 

The invitation may have come from the other side, 
for presently the Moderate Intelligencer proclaims that 
Jones has arrested a servant of Colonel Sterling, Inchi- 


quin's major-general, for making this identical propo- 
sition to Munroe in Ulster and ' General Levin ' ^ in 
Scotland, and that the House has ordered Inchiquin to 
send Sterling over under arrest, and Puritan Mcrairiiis 
Anti-Pragmaticiis calls Sterling — 

'A perfidious Scot who would have blown up all Ireland, 
but the Highest prevented his trecherous design from taking 
effect. And so, O thou that rulest Behemoth, confound all 
their plots and devices that now are very active to engage 
the two nations of England and Scotland in a new and bloody 

It was into this weltering chaos of parties at cross- 
purposes that Colonel Townesend (he was made full 
Colonel now) saw himself plunged as soon as he landed 
in Ireland, and it was this army of Inchiquin's, already- 
hesitating in its allegiance, to which he found himself 
attached. The exact date and place of his landing we 
do not know ; the most probable supposition is that it 
was at Cork in August. At all events strong reinforce- 
ments under Colonels Gray, Needham, and Temple, 
reached Inchiquin in September, and Colonel Towne- 
send arrived then, if not earlier, at his destination. He 
had not long to wait for active service. The desecration 
of the cathedral at Cashel and the slaughter of the 
priests had roused the Nuncio, Rinucini, to fury. He 
denounced Lord Taaff and Lord Muskerry as traitors 
for having abandoned the defence of that holy spot, and 
declared that they were secretly in league with Inchi- 
quin. Lord Muskerry was on the Supreme Council 
at Kilkenny, and his duties there did not allow him to 
take the field ; but Lord Taaff, who was the general of 
the Council's army in Munster, was stung by these 
taunts, and the feeling they aroused, mto moving his 

^ The Earl of Leven. 


army in search of Inchiquin in spite of the inclement 
season. Inchiquin had already distributed his forces 
into their winter quarters, and seems to have been 
disinclined to go to meet his foe : he held a council 
of war to decide whether to call out the men from their 
garrisons or not, and it is said by some that it was only 
the urgency of the English officers, headed by Colonel 
Temple, that resolved him to fight. He is reported to 
have expressed his dissatisfaction with the Army-party 
in England, and to have even received overtures from 
the Irish. He had, however, excuse enough for not 
wishing to take the field in November apart from such 
considerations. The damp climate was telling severely 
upon the troops from England in their destitute con- 
dition. A letter written to the Parliament from his camp 
certainly does not mince matters. 

'We long,' it runs, 'to hear from England that this poor 
Kingdom may have relief in its starving condition. 'Twould 
make your soul bleed to see the poor soldiers march out with 
never a whole rag to their backs nor shoes to their feet, feeble 
and faint for want of what should suffice nature ; and yet they 
are as valiant as any in the world and showed themselves so 
in the battle, tho' kept eight or nine days in the Field when 
all our bread was spent and the battle was to be struck; 
never poor wretches more willingly went on, yea those that 
were sickish skipt for joy.' 

It is true that the remonstrance of Inchiquin's officers 
had reached London, Sept. i8, and on Sept. 20 the 
Parliament had ordered seven thousand suits of clothes, 
shoes, and stockings, for Inchiquin. They also sent 
Colonel James Temple and Mr. Challoner to him ' to 
transact the business of the Houses with him.' This 
jam-and- senna combination affords Mcrcurius Melan- 
choUcus a fine subject for his gibes. 


'The Commons,' says he, 'voted that 7000 suits of clothes, 
shoes, and stockings should be sent the Lord Inchiquin in 
Munster. This is not the first time they have voted what 
they never intended to send. Alas ! Inchiquin is a Presby- 
terian (just such an one as my Lord of Manchester was) and 
if he receive no more comfort than he is like to have from 
a Westminster vote, his heeles may quickly cool for want of 
shoes, and he look as threadbare as a Scotch Laird in sack- 
cloth upon the Stool of Repentance. But if Inchiquin will 
be converted (to Independency), that is turn round like a 
weather-cock with all winds, then 'tis probable he may thrive. 
And therefore he had best prepare his stomach for whole- 
some Counsell for the House hath ordered Col. Temple and 
Mr. Chaloner (one that said not long since in Parliament that 
the best Scot in the world was not worth whistling after) to 
go over to Munster and feele his Pulses whether there be any 
possibility of banishing the Scottish uncleane spirit and pos- 
sessing him with seven worse.' 

The officers who had brought over the ' Remon- 
strance ' were committed to the custody of the Serjeant- 
at-Arms of the House of Commons to be proceeded 
against as the Houses should see good. They con- 
fessed themselves in fault and submitted ; upon which 
the Commons graciously ordered a committee to be 
appointed to bring in an Ordinance for their Indemnity. 

But the shoes did not come ! It is said that the only 
anxiety that could ever keep the Duke of Wellington 
awake at night was thinking of the state of his soldiers' 
shoes. Lord Inchiquin might sleep sound enough ; his 
men had none at all. At all events, ragged and barefoot 
as they were, in response to Lord Taaff's advance, he 
advanced with them to Mallow to meet him. The two 
armies encountered one another at Knocknones, a few 
miles west of Mallow, and there the battle was fought 
which for a time decided the fate of Munster. 



There are various accounts of the battle in the 
newspapers of the time and in certain conternporary 
letters which were pubHshed in pamphlet form. Of 
these, the best and fullest is one preserved in the 
British Museum, which we propose to print entire, 
both for the quaint and graphic touches with which it 
describes the action, and because it alone gives the 
preliminary challenge and acceptance which passed 
between these two Irish noblemen of the seventeenth 
century previous to the encounter. Before beginning 
it, a few words on the tactics of the period and on the 
way in which the men were armed may not be amiss. 
Our authority is Major Walford, R.A., whose book. 
The Parliamentary Generals of the Civil War, contains 
an excellent summary of the art of war, as it was then 

The infantry were armed with pikes and musquets, 
the relative number of the pikemen and musqueteers 
being variable. The pikemen formed squares and the 
musqueteers fired on the enemy from their flanks, 
taking refuge within the squares of pikemen when 
assailed by cavalry. The horse were all armed with 
the sword, and carried in addition either a short car- 
bine or a pair of pistols. The order of battle was 


generally formed in three lines, named respectively 
the main battle, the battle of succour, and the rear 
battle. The guns were posted between the battalions 
of the first line. The cavalry was divided pretty 
equally between the right and left wings, and about 
half on each wing was kept in reserve. On the whole 
it was considered that the force which stood on the 
defensive had a great advantage, as the attacking force 
was liable to get out of order in moving forward, and 
so expose itself to a counter attack. Small bodies of 
troops, styled 'forlorn hopes' and composed mainly 
of musqueteers, were pushed to the front by the 
defence as the enemy advanced, in order to delay and 
confuse his movements by their fire. The guns also 
played upon the advance with the same object, while 
the advancing party's guns could not return the fire 
until their own line was halted. The cavalry on each 
wing usually began by having a little separate battle 
to themselves, and the victors in it were then at leisure 
to fall upon the flanks and rear of their enemy's foot. 
As long as the squares of pikemen remained intact 
they were comparatively safe from the horse, but if 
they once were broken the footmen were at the mercy 
of the cavalry, who ' had the execution of them,' as the 
phrase was, while daylight lasted. 

In the battle of Knocknones Colonel Townesend com- 
manded the main battle ^, Colonel Blunt the right wing 
of foot, Colonel Gray the left. The ' forlorn hope ' of 
foot was under Lieut.-Colonel Crispe. Inchiquin's own 
regiment of horse and Sir William Bridges' were on 
the left wing. Broghill's, Temple's, and Jephson's regi- 
ments of horse formed the right wing under Colonel 
Temple, having Captain Southwell and Captain Randolf 

'■ Moderate Intelligencer, Dec. 16-23. Newspapers, 1647, British Museum. 



as a reserve. The guns, six field-pieces, were posted 
on the left wing. Lord Taaff had no artillery with him, 
though he tried to make Inchiquin believe that he 
had. His troops outnumbered Inchiquin's almost two 
to one, but they were mostly armed with pikes, his 
supply of firearms being small, while the proportion 
of musqueteers in Inchiquin's foot was very high. 
The best troops in Taaff s army were a body of veteran 
Highlanders, armed with the musket and claymore, 
and led by Sir Alexander Macdonnell, the redoubtable 
Colkitto. A man of gigantic stature, he wielded his 
formidable sword equally well with either hand, which 
gained for him the nickname of Colkitto or the left- 
handed. He had fought like a hero of romance all 
through Montrose's wonderful campaign in the Western 
Highlands of Scotland, and had brought, after the 
disaster which befel Montrose at Philiphaugh, a regi- 
ment of staunch partisans from the Highlands to help 
in the Irish War. What fate had in store here for him 
and his ' Redshanks ' let the narrative which follows tell. 

A Perfect Narrative of the Battle of Knocknones 
BY an Officer of the Parliament's Army present 

ABLE Member of the House of Commons. 

It was now a season as unapt for action to the naked 
English as opportune for the Irish, better inured and 
accommodated to the hardships of that country, when the 
Lord Taff, General for the Irish, advanced towards the 
English quarters with a designe to block up or distress them 
in their garrisons, wherein it being discerned that hee might 
prevalently proceed to their destruction if a seasonable oppo- 
sition were not given ; it was at a Council of Warre, sum- 
moned by the President, long debated whether to issue forth 
of our garrisons to encounter this approaching torrent or 


not, and at length, after an earnest endeavour of divers to 
the contrary, resolved to be more consistent with our safeties 
to make head against the rebels in the field, than to suffer 
them to come within our quarters, and so disable us either to 
join together in an offensive, or subsist together in a defen- 
sive posture. In pursuance of which resolution the Army 
(being by the general vote and the President's orders drawne 
together at Moyallo^) marched on the twelfth of this Instant^ 
(after a due discharge of those pious invocations and exercises 
of addresses to the Divine Providence which the President 
had injoyned) to a place called Gariduff (in English Black- 
Gardens), the Rebels encamping at Knocknones within two 
miles of us ; but the day so far spent as that it was not held 
fit to make any attempt then upon them. About the evening 
came a Trumpet from the Lord Taff with a letter to the 
President in these words, 

My Lord, 
The delay of my not sending to you a returne of your last 
letter by your Trumpet was occasioned by my stay for my 
Artillery, which being come I tell your Lordship, that Cap- 
tain Courtopp very much magnifying the excellency of your 
foot, I offered (more for recreation than with a suspicion that 
it might breake your army) that a thousand or two of mine 
should (when ever you made an indifferent appointment) 
fight with a like number of yours ; which I am now ready to 
perform in this place. And if you please to draw the Remaine 
of your Army hither, I will look upon you, and certainly 
neither of our Parties will want the gallantry of seconding 
their ingaged friends. Our quarrell is to maintain the 
Kings Interests which all of us with the hazard of our lives 
will maintain against any opposition ; And when I consider 
that by the destruction of your party I may be in the more 
unmolested condition to serve him, be certain your invitation 
to battle is acceptably received by me. I know that in your 
Lordships Army there are a great many gentlemen which 
have been very faithful to their King, and am sorry 'tis your 
Lordships practise to abuse them by continuing them in a 

' Mallow. ^ Nov. 1647. 

E 2 


service so destructive to his Majesties Rights. And pray 
my Lord do not delude them by distracting this Army who 
are unalterably and without any hope of particular benefit 
determined to loose themselves or restore (as much as in 
them lies) the King to his former greatnesse ; this is truth, 
and it proceeds cordially from 

Your Lordships servant, 
Knocknones Taaff. 

12 Novem. 27 (i. e. 47) 

To which my Lord President returned. 
My Lord, 

I have received your Letter by your Trumpeter, and your 
Lordship might before this have perceived that I was not 
ignorant where your Army lay, had not the approach of 
night scanted me of time to march up unto you ; And being ' 
you have performed as much as I desire in bringing your 
Army hither, I shall not desire you to loose any advantage 
you may have in numbers of men, being your Offer was only 
made for Recreation ; You are pleased to say your quarrell 
is chiefly to preserve the Kings Interest, and because I believe 
it will little avail me to offer Reasons to convince you of the 
contrary, I shall defer the dispute until we meet in the morn- 
ing, when I believe these Gentlemen whom yee suppose to 
be deluded by me will by Gods help use Rhetorick that will 
better conduce to that end, to which I shall refer your Lord- 
ship for satisfaction, being resolved to contribute therein to 
the endeavours of 

Your servant, 


This night we lodged in a wood which equally afforded 
both security and convenience unto the souldiers. The 
wood was to the Foot (Pray) and to the Horse (Prevaile) 
and this night some real appearance '^ was observed in the 

' ? 'seeing.' 

^ A natural phenomenon easily interpreted as an omen. Cf. Milton, 
speaking of a comet that 

' from his horrid hair 
Shakes pestilence and war.' 


nature of a meteor : early in the morning we began to pre- 
pare (the light giving us now a clear manifestation of what 
was to be done) the enemy was drawn up upon a hill about 
two myles off called Knocknones, which being of great 
advantage to them, the Lord President (if possible) to with- 
draw them from it sent this letter to the Rebels General. 

My Lord, 
Here is a very faire piece of ground betwixt your Lord- 
ships Army and ours on this side the brook ; whither if you 
please to advance we will do the like ; we do not so much 
doubt the gallantry of your resolution as to think you will 
not come but give you this notice to the end you may see we 
do stand upon no advantage of ground and are willing to 
dispute our quarrel upon indifferent terms ; being confident 
that the justice of our cause will be this day made manifest 
by the Lord, and that your Lordships judgment will be rec- 
tified concerning 

Your servant, 

Novem. 13, 1647. Inchiquin. 

To which the Lord Taaff returned verbal answer that he 
was not so little a souldier as not to improve any advantage 
he had whether of ground or otherwise, which he doubted 
not the President would do in like case. 

The reason as we learned afterwards by some of their 
men taken prisoners (besides the advantage of ground being 
a steep hill) why the Lord Taaff so pertinaciously stuck to that 
place was this. 

There was a certaine old blinde Prophecie running amongst 
the Irish which, converted into English rymes like their old 
bard, speakes thus — 

Mac Donogh (future age shall see 
A man of thy posterity 
By whom the English Lord shall fall 
Bloud shall ascend to the legges small 
The place we Knocknones do call. 

Which was by the Lord Taaff applyed to himself, for that 
hill whereon he stood was called Knocknones and his ances- 
tors had the lands of Mack Donagh given by the Kings of 


England in reward of their service performed against the 
Rebels here; their Lieutenant Generall sir Alexander 
McDonnell, known vulgarly by the name of Colkitto, 'was 
unwilling to have the fight performed on that day ' (upon a 
superstitious observation for that he was exceedingly afraid 
of Saturns malevolent influence, that day being to him 
criticall); the former name of the place was antiquated 
almost this last age, the name of it now being Englishmans 
hill, as it proved on this happy and successful day. 

The Lord Taaff therefore resolving obstinately to adhere 
to his chosen ground, the Lord President calling a counsell 
of War to advise whether it were expedient to assault them 
on such a disadvantageous place (the wind friending them 
likewise and their numbers almost doubling ours), but the 
sense of our present condition quickly resolved this scruple, 
it being to no purpose to have advanced hitherto if wee 
should proceed no further, and for the success to put our- 
selves upon the mercy of God. It is not to be forgotten here 
that before the counsell the Lord President commanded that 
God should be sought by prayer for our direction in this 
needful time of trouble. The word given on our side was 
Victory, the mark a branch of new broome in our hats, 
wherewith our Quarters then abounded. The enemies mark 
was a strawen rope about their hats, their Word was God 
and St. Patrick, they having forgotten how lately their country 
Saint had failed them (for that was the word when we put 
them to the sword at Cashel), their numbers consisted as 
themselves gave out 9000 Foote and 1000 Horse, but by list 
found afterwards in the Lieutenant Generalls'' pocket they 
were mustered in the field 7464 foot and 1076 horse besides 
Officers. Our Army was neere 4000 Foote and 1200 horse, 
the enemie ranging their battel in a plain front, all along the 
hill, that so they might engage all their force together, their 
foot was drawn into nine divisions of which the greater 
part by much was Pike, winged with three bodies of Horse 
on each side beside Reserves, our foot whose number was by 
half the lesse were marshalled into three divisions whereof 

' Saturday, Nov. 13. ^ Colkitto's. 


two parts of three were muskets, the right and left wing of 
horse were made of 13 bodies of Horse, 7 on the right wing 
and six on the left (with their Reserves). Both Armies thus 
drawn up. 

The Rebels held firmly (their first resolution) not to part 
with their station, but that we should either not fight at all 
or do it upon these unequall Terms, the wind was for the 
Rebels, the Lord President (whose Rival no man can be in 
this piece of glory, it being indeed in all mens judgments 
under God the gaining of the day on our side, thoroughly 
weighing their numbred ground and commodity of the place 
above us, all which he considered of too much moment that 
they might be to turn the scale in the Ballance of War, 
thought of a way of forcing them to that they would not wil- 
lingly be drawn to, to leave the ground and discompose their 
present forme that so (we might have the advantage in that 
disorder) to assault them, and this he effected thus ; He 
drew the left wing ^ of his battle from the ground wherein he 
at first placed them, making them to move into a place of 
fallow ground more leftward, as if he would get upon the 
enemies backs on that side, and commanded his right wing '' 
to wave a little that way too, as if he went with all his force 
to assail them in that one place. The Rebells, careful enough 
to support their own designe, had a watchful eye upon all 
our motions, and by this last imagining they might be 
charged in the rear or surcharged with the multitudes of our 
men at one place, the train of the Lord Presidents plot im- 
mediately took : for they breaking from their first form 
parted with their stands : Likewise drawing most of their 
Forces to succour their right wing, by varying the scene of 
their ground we got these advantages. The wind was made 
an indifferent arbiter, the ascent of the hill not so steep, and 
onely the Sun was now a neuter to ripen the Fruit of this 
Design quite, which was now more than green. The Lord 
President commanded two pieces of Artillery to be drawn to 

' Inchiquin's own regiment on the left of his ' battle.' 

'^ Apparently Sir William Bridges' regiment of horse on the right of 
Inchiquin's ' battle,' but it may possibly mean Temple on the right of the 
whole army. 


play on their right wing and if any disorder thereby hapned 
our Horse and Foot were in that nick to fall on : our right 
wing ' having observed the left of theirs made thin with some 
confusion likewise with sending relief to their friends, had 
command to resume their first stations and to incline further 
to the right hand (as our left wing had done before to the 
left) as if they Hkewise intended to surprise the Rebels on 
the back ; to prevent which the Rebells resolved immediately 
to fall on : to this end they advanced with their Horse before 
their Foot to charge ; but that error being soon espied by 
ours, our shot were commanded presently to advance under 
the shelter of a Ditch that parted them and us, who poured 
such showers of hail upon them (that it proved a funerall 
peall to many) the rest retired foul and routed their own 
Foot. This their neighbours espying followed their example 
and so their main body of Foot and the left wing of Horse ^ 
ran clean away, and our Horse '■' followed after them in the 
chase : but God willing to mingle a little gall with the sweet 
cup he had before given us (that so we might be contented to 
receive everything at his hand) was pleased that part of the 
ground which was assigned for our left wing was not so con- 
venient for horse but yet to be accepted (where there was no 
choice of better) but very defenceable by Foote by reason of 
some enclosure and ditches and a lane near adjacent ; there 
the Lord President made the bounds of his Foot but they by 
their vallour (if not rashnesse rather) fancying to themselves 
some imaginary advantage pressed further and so clouded us 
a little with the smoake of their shot ; that the right wing of 
the Rebells Army which was led by Sir Alexander Mack- 
Donnel, alias Colkitto, the Rebels Lieutenant Generall, on 
whom our guns playing fiercely (to prevent that danger 
and performe some notable service as he had promised with 
his Red-shankes) came thundering down without the least 

' Apparently Temple's brigade on the right of the whole army, but it may 
mean Sir William Bridges on Inchiquin's right. 

' Under Lord Taaff himself who is said to have pistolled several men with 
his own hand in trying to stop their flight. 

" Temple's undoubtedly. Inchiquin himself seems to have ridden round 
the Irish rear and met him after routing Purcell. 


sense of danger, even the rebels horse on the right wing ' 
advancing with those foot were charged by their opposite 
horse ^ on our left wing and routed ; who following hard upon 
them, the Rebels foot slipped in undiscerned of them upon our 
foot, whose forwardnesse, seeing the enemies horse routed, 
had left their defensive stage which they might with ease and 
safety have maintained, and rouling downe like a Torrent 
impetuously on our Foote routed our forlorn hope ^ by which 
means our foot ' being outnumbered the Enemy began to 
have the execution of them ; possest two of our guns and one 
of them being loaded discharged it against us, and so tearing 
down all before them got to our waggons and there fell a 
plundering ; had it not been for this disaster without doubt 
we had bought a most perfect and glorious victory at the 
easiest rate that might be without the losse as is imagined of 
ten men, but this cost some fifty of our common men their 
lives, and divers of our galantest Commanders not being able 
to stay their men nor willing to run along with them, there 
gloriously sacrificed their lives rather chusing to die though 
almost deserted of all than to give the least ground back to 
so barbarous and cruel Rebels. The Lord President was 
but newly parted from the left wing being on the right where 
he joyfully saw a Victory on the nick of gaining by the total 
discomfiture of that part of the enemy ; but looking towards 
our left wing there his eyes were presented with the rueful 
spectacle of his mens slaughter and the Rebells overturning 
all before them even to our wagons, he immediately posted 
down some regiments of foot ', and a troop or two of horse 
which had been there for Reserves ^ and had not come 
upon the charge : These coming down fell upon the Rebels 
in their return from our Baggage where they made their 
lives pay the price of their insolent attempt by putting the 
greatest part of them to the sword, amongst whom fell Sir 

' Under Colonel Purcell. 

^ Inchiquin's horse. 

' Under Lieutenant-Colonel Crispe who was captured, 

• Colonel Gray's. He was killed at the guns. 

•' Colonel Townesend's and Colonel Blunt's. 

' Captain Southwell's and Captain Randolf's. 


Alexander Mack Donnell ^ and his Lieutenant Colonel. And 
thus by Gods help and the wisdom and vallour of our 
General, Commanders and Souldiers, a glorious victory was 
gained over the Rebels, the chase was followed every way 
by our Foote and Horse, but Horse especially, for they were 
too light for our footmen all over the Countrey, till night hin- 
dered the further prosecution, when a retreat being sounded 
for that time the Lord President and his Officers in the 
field with their Souldiers gave thanks to God for his ex- 
traordinary great mercy and deliverance. The -slaughter 
was not made an end with that day, for the next day our 
Horse ranged the Countrey and found divers, and the foot 
hunted the woods and bogs and by that means found many 
of the enemy which were put to the sword upon the place. 

The storm fell sore upon their foot, the Countrey who 
should know best report five thousand to be slaine, there 
could not be less than four thousand, we recovered neere 
6000 Armes, 38 Collours of Foote, with some Cornets of 
Horse, wee also recovered their Waggons and all their 
Ammunition, took the Lord TaafPs their Generalls tent, field 
bed, and Cabinet wherein are papers of Concernment, im- 
porting much of this service of Ireland, which is to be 
delivered into the House. In it was likewise found his com- 
mission from the Supreame Councell for being Generall of the 
Forces of Munster ; so that by the losse of his Army he 
wants Men to command and of his Commission, power to 
command men : On our part were slain in that unhappy 
rout of our left wing some noble and gallant Officers, Sir 
William Bridges Colonell of Horse, Colonell Gray, Major 
Browne, Sir Robert Travers the Judge Advocate was killed at 
our Baggage, a Captaine or two, Reformados, and some other 
Officers of inferior rank, when the sword had sufficiently 
quenched his thirst of bloud, then in a cooler vaine mercy 
began to take place and these Persons undermentioned 
were taken prisoners : — Colonel Randal Mack Donnel, Lieut. 
Col. Mack Namarra, Major John Fealane and about seventy 
officers more whose names are given in a list appended. 

Divers other Captaines and Officers were made prisoners 

' Killed, it is said, by Major Purdon of Broghill's regiment. 



who remaining yet in the Souldiers hands unbrought in could 
not be inrold in this hst, on our part were taken prisoner 
Lieutenand Colonell Crispe, who is now released and with us 
for an Officer of theirs of like quality, besides one Lieu- 
tenant more, here to give you just account what every 
Officer and Souldier performed (except that small party 
which unfortunately fled) would swell this relation too much, 
and inquire the actors modesty, who desire the glory should 
be ascribed to God, themselves being but employed as in- 
struments. For the Officers, and amongst the forwardest of 
them Colonell Temple who had seen them performe this 
dayes service, would have thought them worthy of a better 
reward, then having conquered all their enemies abroad, to 
go home and be conquered themselves by their owne wants, 
each Souldier honoured God by his vallour, and none dis- 
honoured themselves. The Lord President has not yet 
made an end of his victory, for he is prosecuting it vigor- 
ously by reducing all the Countrey into Contribution, where 
he marches notwithstanding the violence of the weather, and 
the practises of some to draw the Souldier to a mutinous 
crying out. Home, Home, it being now a deepe snow and 
his men almost naked, that so the Province may be subdued 
and the Rebels disabled to draw suddenly to a head againe, 
which if it please the Divine Providence to assist us with 
seasonable supplies, we shall use all possible and eflfectuall 
meanes to prevent. 

A brief of the slain and taken 

Taken of the Enemies Horse . . 200 

Slain of the Foot .... 4000 

Officers taken Prisoners ... 68 

Gentlemen of the Countrey ... 6 

More Officers ..... 4 

Colours of Foot 38 

Cornets of Horse 3 

Of Ammunition, wagons ... 4 

OfArmes 6000 

The Lieutenant Generall slain. 



The above is a straightforward account of the battle 
by an eye-witness, a soldier himself, and is to be much 
preferred to descriptions of it written by non-military 
authors long afterwards. It may, however, be sup- 
plemented on a few points by other contemporary- 
evidence. A letter from William More, written on the 
night after the battle, says — 

'The dispute by parties lasted some two houres until at 
last the Rebels began to descend from the top of the hill and 
then the fight was very fierce but lasted not long for in half 
an hour they were routed and broken : no quarter was given 
to the Irish Rebels nor to the Redshanks. The Lord 
Inchiquin charged many of the quality of the enemy's party, 
amongst the rest one his Lordship pursued to a wood and 
there slew him, a confederate officer : and his Lordship did 
so cut the Rogues that he brake his sword into three pieces.' 

Inchiquin's own words, in his report to the Speaker of 
the Commons, are — 

'The dispute lasted not above half a quarter of an hour but 
the execution ended not in that day ; for though we were killing 
till night as fast as we could yet we found two or three hun- 
dred next day in the woods as we were viewing the bodies, 
but could not possibly get any exact accompt of the number 
slain ; for after I had an accompt of more than 2000 that the 
pursuing parties slew in their several walks, I was informed 
of many hundreds that were slain in divers other places, so 
as our men believe there were not less than 5000 slain ; but 
I do not think it possible there should be above 3000, be- 
cause the dispute lasted not at all ; and that except the three 
regiments of Foot that came on with Sir Alexander Mack 
Donnell the rest made the best use they could of their heels 
to the woods and bogs towards Kanturk, Newmarket and 
Lyscarrol ; yet we cut 200 of their horsemen.' 

The ' butcher's bill ' was complete. ' Homo homini 
lupus.' No wonder Ireland swarmed with wolves. 


when man provided such feasts for creatures not more 
savage than himself. 

The report in the Moderate Intelligencer for Dec. 
16-23, from which we took the names of the divisional 
commanders in the order of battle, says that the rout 
of Colkitto's Redshanks was effected by Captains 
Southwell and Randolf 

' To which Townsend and Blunt gave good help . . . the 
gainers of this happy victory, under God, appear in the rela- 
tion of the fight ; more need not be said in their commenda- 
tion ; it is usual to give by name commendation to those who 
do gallantly, therefore none will take it ill.' 

' But 'twas a famous victory.' At Buttevant still 
stands a ruined Franciscan Priory, in whose crypt is 
piled a great heap of mouldering human bones, which 
are believed to be the relics of those who fell at 
Knocknones. The mighty frame of Colkitto and his 
valiant arm impressed the imaginations of the people. 
Under the name of MacAUisdrum, the memory of the 
gigantic Sir Alexander MacDonnell lingered long among 
the Irish peasantry. Down to the middle of the fol- 
lowing century a ' very odd kind of Irish music ' was 
well known in Munster as the MacAllisdrum's iVIarch : 
it was a wild kind of rhapsody in his praise, and was 
so much esteemed that it was played by the Irish at all 
their Feasts ^. 

Note. — For some account of Knocknones from the other side, the curious 
may consult the Aphorismical Discovery, an anonymous MS. printed by Mr. 
J. T. Gilbert in his Contemporary Hist, of Ireland, 1641-1652. It gives an 
insight into the frantic quarrels of the confederates among themselves. 

^ Smith's History of Cork. 



Proud of his success Inchiquin hastened to send 
ofiF a messenger, Captain Piggott, with despatches to 
announce it to the Houses. They received the news 
with effusion, ordered a thanksgiving for it to be cele- 
brated all over the country, voted ;^5o to the lucky 
Captain Piggott as a gratuity, ;^ 10,000 for the Munster 
army out of the first moneys for Ireland ;f 1,000 as a 
present for Inchiquin himself and a special letter of 
thanks, passing likewise that Ordinance of Indemnity 
for those who acted in the former disturbances there. 
At the same time there was a report made to the House 
of the Merchant Adventurers' consent to ;^5ooo more 
being advanced ^ 

Mcrcitritts Pragmaficus makes very merry over the 
whole business : — 

'And it is very needful now that the citizens should refund, 
else what sign will there be of great thankfulnesse to God for 
Inchiquin's great victory in Ireland, which the Houses give 
them to understand is one main step to the recovery of the 
old adventurers upon Irish lands ; and therefore appointed 
them a day of thanksgiving in hope to be invited to dinner 
and then to break the business to them ; but the citizens say 
they are quite weary of such bold and sturdy beggars as will 
have victuals and money too.' 

' Perfccl Occurrences, Nov., Dec. Newspapers, 1647. British Museum. 


We must remember that the city was decidedly 
Presbyterian, and not at all inclined to overmuch con- 
fidence in this New Model of Parliament where Inde- 
pendency was rampant, and, of course, Pragmaticus 
does his best to foment discord between the two. Also, 
that the very day of Knocknones, when Inchiquin's 
cavalry were riding down the wretched kernes, Charles 
himself was riding blindly southward, having fled from 
Hampton Court, a fugitive not knowing where to look 
for safety, seeking it at last in the Isle of Wight, which 
he was never to leave again save as a close prisoner. 
Also that a very dangerous ' Levelling party ' had now 
risen in the army, and that Monday, Nov. 15, had seen 
Cromwell face this alarming movement at the mutinous 
rendezvous in Corkbush Field between Hertford and 
Ware, and trample it out for the time not without 
shedding of blood. Cromwell knew well the necessity 
of keeping up the army in England, for its work was 
not yet done, but he was resolute to keep it in hand. 
Pragmaticus, however, goes on to hint that the Irish 
war was but a sham, an unreal excuse for maintaining 
an army at all. 

'So then it is supposed, though the Houses in a frolic 
have ordered £10,000 for Inchiquin's army with £1000 for 
Inchiquin himself, yet the Devill a penny are they like to 
have, and so their heeles may cool for all a Westminster 
vote which seldom conveys any comfort into Ireland because 
that Warre must be kept on foot still, the better to coun- 
tenance the keeping up of forces here, and thus they must 
be content with an ordiiiance of Indemnity for their former 

The everlasting indemnity and still no shoes ! ' Thank 
you for nothing' the Munster army might well rejoin. 
Chasing barefoot through the snow after the wretched 


fugitives of Knocknones might be necessary to ensure 
their own safety, but was not calculated to warm their 
hearts towards the Parliament that had set them the 
task. ' More naked than the very Indians ' is one 
description given of their state at this period, yet they 
kept up the campaign. Lord Taaff was busy raising 
a fresh army, and they dared not relax their efforts. 

' Our Commanders-in-chief in Ireland are all in the field,' 
says the Moderate Intelligencer, in February, 1648, 'not- 
withstanding those necessities that surround them. Hunger, 
Nakedness, and want of pay, sharper than the swords of 
their enemies : the truth is the extremities of the very officers 
are intolerable. The Lord Inchiquin hath taken a castle of 
my Lord Ormondes within 8 miles of Kilkenny.' 

If their extremities were intolerable Parliament at 
least could not plead ignorance of them. Early in 
1648 Inchiquin's officers joined in a Declaration of 
Remonstrance to Parliament on their treatment ^- This 
Declaration sets forth very plainly the shocking state 
in which the soldiers of the Munster army had been 
left for want of supplies. To abandon them to cold, 
hunger, and nakedness, was but a poor return for the 
blood they had shed so freely in the Parliament's 
service. The clothes promised them before winter had 
never come, and of the ;£"io,ooo but a bare .£'2,700, and 
of that only ;£'i,5oo was destined to procure them food. 
Their enemies were more threatening than ever, and 
for lack of supplies they were unable to defend them- 
selves. If, therefore, the Parliament did not mean 
totally to abandon them to their fate, let them either 
have supplies enough sent them to enable them to feed 
and defend themselves, or else let shipping be sent to 

' Borlase, who gives the full text of the Remonstrance. 


fetch them off to England. And faihng either of these 
things, they asserted that there was nothing left for 
them to do but to make such terms as th^y could with 
the rebels. 

Assuredly this was plain speaking. It is never 
pleasant to be told by those who have fought for you 
that you have treated them so ill that they are ready 
to abandon your service. The Parliament was very 
naturally angry, and many of the subscribers were 
sent for to England and committed to prison ; they 
apologised however, and were soon released, and an 
act of Indemnity for them passed. But the work was 
done: when you have exposed your life for masters 
who leave you to starve, it does not conciliate you to 
be clapped into prison for remonstrating ; Inchiquin 
had got his officers thoroughly dissatisfied with the 
Pariiament. The first name in the list of those who 
subscribed to the Remonstrance is that of Colonel 
Richard Townesend. 

There can be no reasonable doubt that this Declara- 
tion was a move of Inchiquin's in the game he had now 
made up his mind to play. For he had by this time 
decided to break off entirely with the Army party in 
England, whose grip on the Parliament was daily 
tightening. He deeply distrusted the form their ideas 
were taking. Even in England there were growing 
fears of the fanaticism of the ' levellers ^,' and Inchiquin 
was clear that a ' commonwealth of saints ' was not 
fit for a gentleman to live in, and was not pleased to 
think every victory he won might be bringing the day 
nearer when plain M'=Murrough O'Brien, no longer 
Lord Inchiquin, would have to rub shoulders with any 

' See Cromwell's letter to Colonel R. Hammond : ' This fear of levellers 
that they would destroy nobility.' Carlyle. 



ploughman or cobbler who was ' moved to give his 
testimony' on the management of all things spiritual 
and temporal. 

But would the officers who had joined him from 
England share his views ? The very fact that they 
had come to Ireland when they did showed they had 
little in common with the dominant party in the English 
Army, while now they had not much cause for loyalty 
to the neglectful English Parliament. Most of them 
belonged to the party which for a year past had been 
negotiating for the restoration of the King on condition 
of the establishment of Presbytery, and some, like the 
D'Oyleys, were Royalist gentlemen who had been 
pardoned by the Parliament on condition of going to 
the Irish wars. 

But the balance of power having shifted from the 
Houses to the Army the Government was no longer 
the same that had sent them over. Did they still then 
owe it fidelity ? England was drifting wildly towards 
some unknown goal. Among the new powers that 
had sprung up the Crown only was unchanged. Might 
not the King have learned wisdom from adversity, and 
if they supported him might they not crush this wild 
Independent party and guide England back to her old 
constitutional course ? Was not this the duty of every 
patriotic English Protestant ? 

All that winter, 1647-8, the negotiations between the 
King, the Parliament and the Scots' Commissioners had 
dragged on. The Army, under its able leaders, Crom- 
well and Ireton, now proposed moderate and hopeful 
grounds for accommodation, but the King clung to his 
infatuated belief that he could play all parties off 
against each other, and gave no real heed to their 


For the time it seemed as if his policy would suc- 
ceed : the Scots concluded a Secret Treaty with 
Charles, which bound them to send him an army, and 
the mere hope of these Scotch reinforcements made 
the Royalist party spring to life again ever5rw"here. 

In February Wales rose, then followed Cornwall 
and Devon ; there were riots in London, and in May 
the men of Kent were up in arms. The second civil 
war had begun. 

The more moderate party of the Irish Confederates, 
weary of the \iolence of the Nuncio, determined to 
break with him and join the King's party. Accordingly 
they sent Lord Muskerry and Geoffry Brown, Lord 
Ormonde's legal adviser, over to France with secret in- 
structions signed by their generals, Preston and Taaff, 
to negotiate with the Queen. Fortunately for her 
cause Ormonde had taken refuge in Paris, and his 
wise advice induced her to return a prudent and 
gracious answer to their proposals. The Presbyterian 
Scots of Ulster were now inclining, like their brethren 
of Great Britain, to the side of the King, the officers of 
the Parliament's Dublin garrison were wavering, and 
even Broghill's name was mentioned among the allies ^. 

At the end of February, Bishop George Synge^ who 
had left Dublin when it was given up to the Parliament, 
arrived at Cork with dispatches from Lord Ormonde, 
and on receiving them Inchiquin sent off an officer to 
Scotland to assure himself of support in that country, 
and received the full approbation of the Scots Parlia- 
ment, who actually agreed to his making an alliance 
with the Romanists at Kilkenny! 

By the 3rd of April Inchiquin was sure that most 
of his officers would support him, and he sent for 

■ Leland's Hist, of Ireland, iii. 323. ^ See notes on chapter vi. 

F 2 


certain 'surly parliamentarians'^ into the presence 
chamber of the castle at Mallow and spoke openly 
to them, reminding them that the Independents had 
forced the ParHament to break the Oath of Allegiance 
which required his Majesty to be secured on the throne, 
and were now threatening the whole constituted order 
of government and society in England. ' I hope before 
Michaelmas,' said he, ' to see them flat on their backs I' 
On parade next day he harangued the rest of his troops, 
and almost all were ready to follow him. 

Still there were a few ' surly parliamentarians ' who 
were not to be turned round so easily. They held 
that the popish queen, Henrietta Maria, was at the 
bottom of all the troubles of the kingdom, and they 
were not to be flattered by the gracious messages she 
might send through Bishop Synge and the Duke of 
Ormonde. Were they, at the bidding of a French 
woman, to offer the right hand of fellowship to the 
papist Taaff and forget all that 

' The Hand of God had wrought 
For the Houses and the Word ' ? 

Several of them. Sir William Fenton, Colonel Phair, 
Capt. Fenton and some others, made a desperate plot 
to seize the seaport of Youghal and so keep open the 
communication with England, from whence they hoped 
for a ship with supplies. But Inchiquin was on the 
alert and promptly imprisoned them in different castles, 
where they remained till the following autumn, when 
they were exchanged for Lord Inchiquin's son, who 
had been detained a hostage in England ^. 

^ Prendergast, CroTnwellian Settlement, 

^ Moderate Intelligencer, April 13, 1648. 

^ Borlase. Lord Inchiquin's son was sent to the Tower in October. 
Inchiquin to Ormonde, Nov. 14, 1648, mentions the landing of his son at 
Castle Haven, Co. Cork. 


Lord Broghill, who always felt a jealousy of Inchi- 
quin, was extremely indignant at the imprisonment of 
these gentlemen, who were his relatives and particular 
friends. As he believed that Inchiquin had arrested 
them from private dislike, not from public motives, he 
seriously thought of breaking off negotiations with the 
adherents of Ormonde and joining Jones the Parliamen- 
tary commander at Dublin ^. But whether from dislike 
of the Independents, or from finding the army not yet 
ripe for revolt, he thought better of it, and allowed a 
chilly reconciliation to be patched up between himself 
and Lord Inchiquin. 

To the Royalist journals it seemed that at last the 
good time was really coming when Charles should 
have his own again. The Scottish Presbyterians were 
raising an army of forty thousand men under the Duke 
of Hamilton, to come and put down the EngHsh sec- 
taries ; Colonel Poyer's rising in Wales was thriving 
apace ; and now the Munster army had declared itself. 
Pragmaticus for April 11 is very cock-a-whoop, and 
informs the Houses — 

' That it is high time to unvote those wild and peremptory 
conclusions against kingly power. For the Lord Inchiquin 
likewise holds the same resolution with the Welsh, and hath 
given the high and mighty States to understand in plain 
terms that he will stand for the king, and bids a figg for 
their suppHes and their orders and ordinances [they had 
just treated Munster to yet another Ordinance of Indem- 
nity], and says he scornes to own the thing at Westminster 
for a Parliament, because it is a Beast ridden by troopers 
and fit for nothing but to be baited on holydays by the 
London Apprentices.' 

Parliament promptly voted Inchiquin to be a ' Rebel 
and a Traitor.' 

' C&rtes Life of Ormonde. 


Inchiquin having now definitely broken with Parlia- 
ment, hastened to make a cessation with the Lord 
Taaff, on the terms that Taaff was to have Limerick, 
Clare, and Tipperaiy to support his army, while Inchi- 
quin's share was to be Cork, Kerry, and Waterford. It 
was signed on May 20. The Nuncio, a bitter enemy 
to Taaff, was furious at it, and breathing forth excom- 
munication and interdict against all who should accept 
this unholy compact, he fled to the camp of his only 
friend Owen Roe ; and so frantic was his hatred of the 
Moderates whom Taaff represented, that he actually 
made common cause with Jones the Parliamentary 
governor of Dublin. But that move did him little 
good, for Lord Inchiquin sent Major D'Oyley with 
500 horse to reinforce Taaff's army, and ere long 
O'Neil had to retreat to Ulster, and D'Oyley and Taaff 
drove the Nuncio to Galway, where they held him 
closely besieged. The hopes of the leader of the Mun- 
ster army rose high. For a moment it seemed as if 
he was yet destined to crush the great Independent 
party and aid in re-establishing the Royal authority in 
England. It was only for a moment. Inchiquin's new 
allies were anything but cordial, and his officers began 
to see that they had gained Httle by their change of 
sides. However neglectful of them the English Parlia- 
ment might have been, England was still their own 
country and it was bitter to side with the Irish against 
her. A letter in the Moder-ate Intelligencer for June 29, 
dated from aboard the ' Lion ' at Kinsale, and doubtless 
written by one of the escaped officers who kept up 
communication with his comrades of the Munster army, 
shows how some at least of them felt about it already :— 

'The sad effects which usually follow revolts are fallen 
upon the Province of Munster. The Lord Inchiquin and 


his officers we are credibly informed are sick of the agree- 
ment with the Rebels, insomuch that a line of one hair would 
bring them back to the Parliament.' 

He alleges that Inchiquin had recalled the 500 horse 
under D'Oyley and had marched his Foot into Lime- 
rick in search of supplies which were refused him by 
his new aUies. The necessities of his troops were 
greater than ever, and they were afraid to separate into 
small parties in search of what they needed for fear 
these new allies should turn upon them suddenly and, 
joining with Owen Roe again, cut them off utterly. 

Their discontents indeed were great, and any hopes 
that they entertained of relief from a Presbyterian vic- 
tory in England were speedily dashed to the ground. 
The Scots under Hamilton crossed the border in July 
just as Cromwell had driven Poyer to surrender at 
Pembroke, and so had stamped out the Welsh rising. 
Marching rapidly to the north, Cromwell fell upon them 
at Preston and smote them hip and thigh for three long 
August days, from Langridge Chapel all the way to 
Warrington. That crushing defeat ended the second 
civil war at one blow. The leaders of the various 
risings paid the penalty. Fairfax at Colchester shot 
Sir George Lisle and Sir Charles Lucas after a mili- 
tary trial. Poyer suffered the same fate a little later 
on, and the Duke of Hamilton was beheaded in Palace 
Yard. Inchiquin must have felt his own head loose 
upon his shoulders. He was really at a standstill. A 
report under date Dublin, Sept. 4, says — 

'The Lord Inchiquin acts nothing, neither the Lord Taaff 
that we know of, neither against one another nor the Rebels 
who are still at difference, Preston making several attempts 
upon Owen Roe and he again upon Preston, the first (Owen 
Roe) being Irish naturall and the other English Irish : 


after ages will wonder when they read of such a posture as 

Whatever Inchiquin's personal feelings may have 
been he saw that it was too late for him to draw back. 
He and Taaff are said in default of money to pay their 
forces to have let most of their men go to the plough, 
retaining with them only about 600, rather as a body- 
guard than as an army, and with these they joined 
Preston in besieging Fort Faulkland, and there defeated 
an attempt of Owen Roe's army to reheve it, with heavy 
loss. Moreover, Ormonde landed at Cork in Septem- 
ber, bringing some supplies to allay their armies' dis- 
content, bringing also many promises ; and for some time 
it seemed as if Inchiquin's personal popularity would 
prevent the discontent from coming to an outbreak. 

But, on November the 8th, Colonel Edward D'Oyley^ 
came to him at Castle Lyons, where he was staying 
with Colonel Jack Barry 2, and told him that the dis- 
affection of the officers arose from a fear that all those 
who disliked the treaty which Ormonde was negotiat- 
ing with the Irish would soon share the prisons of 
Fenton and Phair. If his Lordship would only sign 
a paper assuring the officers of their personal freedom 
they would, if the treaty succeeded, quietly leave the 
service; but if the treaty should be broken off, as 
treaties had occasionally so ended, they would continue 
in the army with all faithfulness. 

Lord Inchiquin and Colonel D'Oyley were perfectly 
agreed in distrusting each other, and Inchiquin saw 
the danger of signing an unconditional amnesty which 
would cover all possible future misdemeanours. He 
temporised, and said he would ride to Cork and 
address the officers and do his best to satisfy them, 

• Carte's Ormonde, book v. p. 45. ^ See chapter viii. for Barry. 


intending, as he wrote to Lord Ormonde, to flatter the 
mutineers with the hope that the treaty would be 
wholly waived, so that when the army was quieted 
and the heads of this faction secured, the treaty could 
be carried out in safety. Colonel D'Oyley protested 
that he was only the mouthpiece of others, and was 
himself perfectly satisfied of his Lordship's intentions, 
and was ready to attend him to Cork; and so went 
out to his horse. But when Lord Inchiquin followed, 
Colonel D'Oyley was not to be found. He had galloped 
off to his own troop at Limerick and started at their 
head for Dublin, to join his fortunes with those of Jones' 
garrison. Inchiquin did his best to keep D'Oyley's 
example from being followed, and wrote the following 
letter to his lifeguard at Kilkenny : — 

' Fellow-souldiers, I doubt not but you have notice of a 
revolted body of horse officers who are labouring to betray 
this noble army into the hands of the Independents, and 
quite to extinguish that small spark of hope that is left for 
his Majesty's restitution, writhout which, as we can never 
hope for a freedom of parliament, (for no king no Parlia- 
ment) so we can never expect if we come once under their 
power but they will keep us in perpetual bondage to an 
Independent tyranny. And being apprehensive that some 
of the late revolted officers have too great influence upon 
your captain and lieutenant I have thought fit to place in 

their rooms , captain, and , lieutenant, whom I 

shall desire you to observe and obey as your officers, to 
whose care I do commend you, assuring further unto you 
that the pretences of those revolted officers are of all things 
most false and unjust ; for that as we never intended to 
engage against Jones, so upon my credit there is no con- 
clusion nor likelihood of a conclusion for peace with the 
Irish until every person interested be satisfied. And so not 
doubting of your constancy and good affection I remain your 
loving friend — Inchiquin. 


'Cork, lo November, 1648. Addressed to my very 
loving friends the gentlemen souldiers of my lifeguard at 

Was ever mutiny more gently soothed ? ' We never 
intended to engage against Jones,' so how false and 
unjust of Major D'Oyley it is to pretend that in resisting 
O'Neal we are fighting Jones and to gallop off to Dublin 
to join him. The Munster army must have been in 
a very ticklish condition when Inchiquin thought it 
necessary to roar so gently. D'Oyley's defection came 
to nothing however after all on this occasion, for Or- 
monde was too quick for him and sent a body of Irish 
horse to bar his way. D'Oyley had to turn and retrace 
his steps to Cork, and as Inchiquin was not sure of 
the temper of his troops he was obliged to receive the 
Colonel's apologies graciously and to promise indemnity 
and leave to depart to the discontented officers. 

It is difficult to disentangle the events of this autumn ; 
the fears and dissatisfactions of the Munster army 
ebbed and flowed. Ormonde was in daily dread of its 
making submission to the Parliament and 'too preva- 
lent party in England.' He was not even sure of his 
own safety; 'if we can keep our own persons free,' 
he wrote ; adding ' that he especially feared some of 
the Presbyterian party in the army, who had advised 
the troops to make declarations against the Indepen- 
dents, and might now endeavour to make the revolt 
of the army the price of their own reconciliation.' 

The coalition which Ormonde had built up with so 
much care seemed crumbling like sand between his 
fingers. The Munster army was inclined to desert 
him bodily, while the Irish did not trust his promises. 
On November 14 he writes that ' noe arguments ' would 
make them believe in his fair dealing till they saw the 


officers who had interrupted the settlement removed 
from a possibUity of doing so any more, and 'in one 
way or other secured.' 

But, although they knew that a rope was round 
their necks, the officers were not to be silenced : shortly 
after the suppression of the mutiny Colonel Townesend 
and Major Charles D'Oyley wrote to the English war 
committee which sat at Derby House, proposing to 
surrender the towns of Munster, on condition of in- 
demnity and receiving part of the arrears due. They 
said they were acting on behalf of Lord Inchiquin 
himself, and that he with his own hand had approved 
and interlined the conditions in several places^. The 
Derby House Committee in answer sent over Colonel 
Temple with authority to treat. His letter to Lord 
Inchiquin is preserved at Kinsale ^ : — 

' Kinsale Harbour, 7 Dec. 1648. 
Aboard the Elizabeth Frigate. 

' In answer to the proposition subscribed by Colonel Towne- 
send and Major D'Oyley (in the name of the army of Mun- 
ster) I have instructions from Derby House to treat with 
your Lordship and these officers and desire you command 
me to wait on you. 

'I propose that some hostage be sent on board for my 
safety, any one of six I shall nominate to your Lordship, but 
if you approve not I desire Mr. Bettesworth to come aboard 
and view my instructions, for whose safe return I shall 
enlarge myself to your Lordship, beseeching you that during 
the treaty neither the Elizabeth nor Dragon frigates may 
have any annoyance.' 

But while Colonel Temple had been on his way to 
Ireland, things had changed in Munster. Possibly 

^ Cox. It is difficult to fix the date of this letter. Borlase seems to imply 
that it was about July or August, but looking at the course of events this 
seems impossible, and it was not answered till December. 

^ Coalfield, Annals 0/ Kinsak. 


Inchiquin had never authorised the officers to write to 
Derby House, possibly too he may have chosen to do 
it through them so that he might disavow them if he 
felt inclined ; certain it is that the Prince of Wales' 
secretary, Sir Richard Fanshawe, had arrived in Cork 
about November 17 bringing promises, supplies and 
money, and news that the fleet which had revolted to 
the Royal side would soon anchor in Kinsale harbour, 
under the command of the young Duke of York. 
Before this flattering breeze from Court, round veered 
the Munster weathercock. Perhaps there were whis- 
pers of an Earl's coronet that would decorate Baron 
Inchiquin when the King should enjoy his own again, 
for in a contemporary letter Inchiquin is compared to a 
panther who springs from side to side after the bait till' 
he falls into the trap. 

Fanshawe knew very well how to bait his trap, but 
he knew also how easily his game might elude him. 
' I shall not be at full rest,' he wrote, ' till I see those 
frigates gone ^.' 

Inchiquin himself wrote to Ormonde in the lofty tone 
of a general who has had a little trouble with some 
mutinous officers : — 

' I have already committed Lieut.-Col. D'Oyley to safe 
custody and have given the enclosed account of my reasons 
for doing so to a council of war ; Colonel Townesend being 
at the same time out of my reach, so that I have not secured 
his person, but taken an effectual course for it ^' 

Carte in his Life of Ormonde says that Colonel Towne- 
send was deprived of his employment at this time, and, 
not caring to risk a court martial, fled to England with 
Colonel Temple. Others believe he was taken and 

' Caulfield's Kinsale. ' Carte MSS., Bodl. Lib. .v. 12. 


imprisoned, but that he and D'Oyley were only treated 
with this severity in order to impose on Sir Richard 
Fanshawe and make him beheve in Inchiquin's abhor- 
rence of their negotiations with England, and were 
released and restored to favour when Sir Richard 
left \ 

At any rate, the few who were loyal to England were 
silenced, outward peace was restored, and Ormonde 
was able to carry on his negotiations with the Con- 
federate Council in his own castle of Kilkenny, sur- 
rounded with all the pomp and affection due to the 
representative of royalty ^. The King indeed had 
publicly directed him not to make any treaty with the 
Irish ; but as at the same time a private message com- 
manded him to obey the Queen in all things, Ormonde 
proceeded to negotiate a treaty that was so favourable 
to the Irish pretensions that even the officers who had 
remained faithful to Inchiquin were thunderstruck, and 
Sir Charles Coote said the news aroused such anger in 
England as to give the last blow to any hope of an 
accommodation. Pride's Purge had swept all waverers 
out of the House of Commons, and the Army was 
obeyed when it demanded that the King should be 
brought to justice. On the 30th of January, 1649, his 
head fell on the scaffold before the palace of Whitehall. 

Horror at the King's death united all Irish parties at 
once, and Ormonde proclaimed Charles II as King at 
Cork and Kinsale ; and the Nuncio finding his power 
completely gone, fled to France, whence he was soon 
recalled to Italy, and there, being severely censured by 
the Pope for his mismanagement and violence, he is 
said to have died of vexation. 

1 John Sealy Townshend, MSS. Memoir. 
^ Leland, Ireland, iii. 332. 


For several months we hear nothing further of 
Colonel Townesend. Carte says — 

' He returned after the King's murder pretending an utter 
abhorrence of that act and of the proceedings of the Inde- 
pendents, and to be so engaged in matters with the Royahsts 
in that Kingdom as to be forced to skulk in private whilst 
he was there, and to have come over again to Ireland to ven- 
ture his life in the same cause with his Lordship. He was 
in reality sent over by Cromwell as a spy' to corrupt the 
Munster army and send him intelligence, Lieut. Col. Piggot 
and Robert Gookin being likewise employed to the same 
purpose. Townsend was upon his fair pretences restored 
to his command and drew in others to join his revolt.' 

It is necessary to allow for the strong bias of Carte 
(a Romanist and a Jacobite), who can see no good in 
those who were opponents of his hero the Duke of 
Ormonde, but as Colonel Townesend always appears 
as an open opponent of the alliance with the Irish he 
hardly deserves the name of ' secret spy.' 

Long afterwards, when Cromwell's friends were 
getting their rewards, Colonel Phair^ gave the names 
of the men who ' stayed in Inchiquin's army to serve 
the Enghsh interest' or who had paroles from the North 
to come to Munster to collect their ransom as a ' dis- 
guise for their employment' there. They were Captain 
Eames, Lieut. Foulkes, and Captain Robert Townsend ^ 
If Colonel Townesend had been one of them he would 

' The four spies sent over by Cromwell were Captain Robert Gookin, 
Colonel R. Townsend, Lieutenant-Colonel William Piggott, Captain St. John 
Broderick; Carte MSB. lix. 35 a, Bodl. Lib. 

' See Depositions made in 1652 ; Council Book of Cork, reprinted in the 
Gentleman s Magazine. 

' See Caulfield's Council Book of Cork, Appendix D, list taken from 
Carte MSS. lix. p. 35 a. This Robert Townsend may very possibly have 
been a descendant of Sir Robert Townshend of Chester. Many of that 
b ranch of the family were named Robert. 


have claimed his reward at the same time. Possibly 
Carte confused him with Captain Robert Townsend, of 
whom nothing more is known. Carte in his Hsts com- 
piled for the use of the Duke of Ormonde does not 
include Colonel Townesend among the officers who 
betrayed the towns of Munster, but numbers him with 
the ' Principal Actors in the revolt of Cork.' 

But Carte's suggestion is interesting. He tells us 
what Colonel Townesend's spoken opinions were, and 
they were exactly those of the moderate Presbyterian 
party, which Ormonde had especially feared would carry 
the Munster army back from the Irish to the English 
side. Colonel Townesend was a soldier of the Parlia- 
ment, and he could hardly admire the Independents 
who had just turned half of that Parhament out of 
doors ^. He had begun his career in the Presbyterian 
Army which was nominally fighting for ' King and 
Parliament ' ; he had served in Cornwall under Fairfax, 
whose command was given him by the Parliament, ' be- 
ing then unseparated from the Royal Interest^', and 
whose wife, the sister-in-law of pious Sir Roger Towns- 
hand, spoke the feelings of the whole Presbyterian 
party when she protested at the King's trial, ' that not 
one half of the people of England approved of what 
was being done.' The loyalty to the Parliament which 
had made Colonel Townesend risk his life and liberty 
must have received a severe blow by the death of the 

The death of the King had united Ireland more com- 
pletely than all Ormonde's diplomacy. Ulster presby- 
terians, Irish nunciotists, moderates from Kilkenny, 
cavaliers from France, and parliamentarians from Mun- 
ster, all joined at last under the royal standard, and for 

' Pride's Purge. ^ See Diet. Nat. Biog., art. Fairfax. 


a short time the blessing, the inestimable blessing, of 
peace reigned over the country. 

Ireland at peace is a land which has many charms, and 
Lady Fanshawe, the wife of the clever Secretary to the 
young King, found life so pleasant at Youghal that she 
writes, ' We began to think of taking up our abode there 
during the war ; for the country was seeming quiet and 
fertile, and all provisions cheap.' 

Some of the officers began to take up land and settle, 
at least one owned a farm^; and Colonel Townesend 
had a house somewhere in the country"', and was already 
familiar with Castlehaven ^, where he afterwards settled 
down. It is believed that his second son Bryan was 
born in 1648 at Kinsale, where Colonel Townesend may 
have been living on garrison duty. 

His name is not among those officers who ac- 
companied Lord Inchiquin in his dash to the North, 
when he almost gained possession of the last foothold 
of the English in Dubhn, although his friends Colonels 
Gifford and D'Oyley were at the defeat of Rathfarnham 
in September, where after a gallant stand Colonel Gif- 
ford was taken prisoner by Jones. 

At present we know nothing of Colonel Townesend 
during the beginning of the year 1649*. 

By August the levellers in the Army having had 
another very stern lesson given them in the executions 
at Burford, Cromwell had leisure to turn his sword 

' See Depositions, 1652 ; Cork Corp. Council Book. Ed. Caulfield. 

'' Murphy, Cromwell in Ireland. 

' ' I hear by Colonel Townesend that Castlehaven is come in ; ' Cromwell's 
Letter to Lenthall, from Ross. 

* Caulfield, in his edition of the Comuil Book of Youghall, App. F. p. 601, 
mentions that the Council received letters from Ireland from Colonel 
Townsend and Lieutenant Ch. Coote, on Feb. 26, 1649. But the original 
entry {Domes. S. P., hiierreg., Rec. Office) gives Colonel Jones and Sir Ch. 


against Ireland. Ireland was indeed united under Or- 
monde, but England was united under Lord General 
Cromwell. At last the party cries were silent, the 
question had become a national one ^, England against 
Ireland, and the soldiers of the Munster army saw they 
were ranged against their own country. They soon 
saw, also, that they were ranged on a side which 
was doomed. Cromwell landed in Dublin, and the 
massacres of Drogheda and Wexford showed that at 
last the Irish question was undertaken by a man who 
intended settlement. Victory after victory marked Crom- 
well's course. Death or submission were the alterna- 
tives offered to his opponents. 

Broghill was again in Munster, having been gained 
over by Cromwell himself in a private interview, and 
was now using his persuasive tongue on behalf of his 
new friend. He was a man to whom Cromwell and 
Ireton listened ; he succeeded in fascinating the stern 
Regicides, Gough and Whalley^, and the stiffnecked 
Presb3^erian ministers of Edinburgh ^ ; what wonder if 
the perplexed Munster officers thought him the wisest 
leader in the land. If any one were so foolish as to 
hesitate ' I discoursed with him half an hour in private,' 
says the triumphant Broghill, ' and left him fully satisfied 
that it was a national quarrel *.' 

The debates and anxieties among the Munster officers 
had begun anew as soon as Cromwell landed in Dublin. 
Captain Peter Carew held several secret meetings in 
Cork with men whom he knew to be well affected 
towards England, to see what could be done towards 
'bringing over the city.' Some of these officers had 
been made prisoners by the English army, and had 

' Cox. 2 Memoirs of the Boyles, Budgell. ^ Bailley. 

' Letter from Cork, Nov. 22, Tract 203, Lib. Royal Irish Acad. Dublin. 



been converted from the errors of their royalist ways 
so thoroughly, that when they returned to Munster to 
collect their ransoms or negotiate for exchange, they 
were really messengers charged to gain over adherents 
to the Cromwellian cause ^- 

Their project was successful. Inchiquin saw officer 
after officer desert to Cromwell and even the Irish 
inclining to submit, and he began to fear for the safety 
of the sea-ports of the south, which supplied provisions 
to the whole island. The important port of Youghal 
was now occupied by Sir Percy Smith and a garrison 
of the Munster army, Inchiquin thought it wise to add 
to the defenders some friends of his own, Colonel 
Wogan and others, — Carte calls them 'Cavaliers,' but 
the garrison seems to have looked on them as Irish 
rebels. Cork he knew was too strong a place for the 
malcontents to attempt, Waterford was in the hands of 
the Irish, and Prince Rupert's fleet lay in Kinsale har- 
bour although Blake and Deane prevented his doing 
more than protect that one port. 

Cromwell was now on his march towards the south, 
and Sir Percy Smith determined, with the help of three 
officers. Colonels Townesend, Gifford and Warden^, 
to have Youghal ready to receive the conqueror. He 
even hoped to seize Lord Inchiquin himself and end 
the Munster complications with one blow, and should 
he not succeed so far, Inchiquin's troops would at any 
rate be diverted from relieving Wexford, which was 
now threatened by the English army. 

Inchiquin was at this time staying with Colonel Jack 
Barry ^ at Castle Lyons. Colonel Barry had married 
the widowed Countess of Barrymore, Lord Broghill's 

' See Colonel Robert Pliair's depositions, Council Book of Cork, Caulfield. 
2 Carte. ^ See chapter viii. Barrymore. 


sister, and although himself a Romanist, he kept on 
good terms with his protestant brother-in-law, who 
generally succeeded in getting any information he 
needed from Colonel Barry. 

Long afterwards Colonel Townesend's eldest son 
married Lady Barrymore's granddaughter, but now 
there was no talk of friendship and weddings. An 
officer who had been asked to join in this conspiracy 
rode hard to Castle Lyons ^ and warned Lord Inchi- 
quin, who promptly arrested the three Colonels and 
threw them into prison. But he seems to have reck- 
oned without their powerful confederate Sir Percy 
Smith, who at once retaliated by imprisoning Lord 
Inchiquin's friends. Colonel Wogan and the other 
'cavahers,' and stood on his defence. It is hardly 
possible to reconcile the conflicting accounts of this 
incident. Some authorities think Smith rescued his 
friends with a high ' hand -, others say he came to 
terms on finding that the rest of the Munster army 
was not ripe for revolt^, saying, if Lord Inchiquin 
would grant an indemnity and release the three 
Colonels and remove Colonel Wogan and his con- 
federates from the town, he. Sir Percy, would be 
delighted to be rid of them. Inchiquin was anxious 
to be off to Wexford, 'the disorder the revolt of 
Youghal breeds among us, and our great want of 
money,' wrote Ormonde, 'are terrible impediments to 
any action.' Inchiquin consented to the exchange of 
officers, and it is said*, 'never discovered how many 
had been engaged in the plot,' for it was even re- 

' Ormonde to Clanrickard, Oct. 9, Carte MSS. Vol. 25, No. 418. 
^ John Sealy Townshend, MSS. Memoir. 
'' Murphy, Cromwell in Ireland, and Carte's Life of Ormonde. 
* Carte's Life of Ormonde. 

G 2 


ported ' afterwards that Sir Percy himself had had no 
share in the revolt, ' he wished well to it, but could 
not act for reasons he would not declare.' 

But the three Colonels were no sooner at liberty 
than they made another attempt^. Foulke had been 
sent from Dubhn as one of Cromwell's secret agents, 
and Colonel Townesend and Colonel Warden made 
an appointment to meet him and Major Farmer with 
a party of horse at Tallow, and then march together 
to help their friends to secure Youghal. But once 
more Inchiquin got wind of the plot, a man named 
Johnson betrayed it to him, and instead of the friendly 
horse soldiers at Tallow, the conspirators were met 
by a party of Inchiquin's men. Warden and Gifford 
were taken at once, Townesend escaped into the 
country and was apprehended next morning at his 
own house, by Lieut. Francis Bettridge. Foulke and 
Farmer managed to hide in 'the stump of an old 
castle' till Cromwell's approach made it safe to 'take 
a cot and go down by water to Youghal.' 

How little the formal deposition tells of the secret 
meetings, the flight through the dark country, the 
terror of Colonel Townesend's young wife when her 
husband returned with the words ' betrayed again,' the 
surprise at dawn, the summons to surrender, the hope- 
less farewell ! For this time there were no cavalier 
hostages at Youghal to secure the lives of Inchiquin's 

' Capt. Graham's deposition, Cmie Papers, v. 66, p. 237. Bod. Lib. 

^ Major Jasper Farmer's deposition. It seems that this must have been 
a separate second plot, as the three Colonels were known by Cromwell to 
be imprisoned * for the business of Youghal,' and he also says, * they 
ventured their lives twice or thrice.' Or perhaps Sir Percy Smith had only 
rescued some of the Conspirators, leaving the three principals to their fate. 
When Youghal finally surrendered to Cromwell, Johnson and Sir Percy 
Smith were both imprisoned, which looks as if both were looked on as 
alike unfriendly to the parliamentary side. 


prisoners, or perhaps Sir Percy had abandoned their 
cause ; the records of those confused and anxious days 
only tell that all three were promptly carried to Cork, 
and they knew their peril was extreme. 

Inchiquin would probably try them all by Court 
Martial and shoot them on the spot, as Laugharne 
and other parliamentarians had been shot at Kinsale 
the year before. Yet would the discontented troops 
quietly allow their officers to be executed now that 
Cromwell's victorious march was drawing near and 
the storm of Cork was imminent? 

On the night of October i6th, Captain Myhill came 
to the three prisoners, and broke to them the news that 
next morning they were to be separated and sent to 
different castles. At these tidings, Colonel Townesend's 
deposition says, 'they were very much troubled, be- 
lieving that this was with intent to have them executed 
speedily.' Some other officers then came in and de- 
clared they were undone and would be slaves to the 
Irish unless the three colonels would stand by them. 
The prisoners replied that if their friends would but 
fetch a sword and pistol for each of them, they would 
live and die with them. Lieutenant Granger brought 
them three ' rapyers,' which Colonel Townesend clapped 
under the bolster of his bed till all was ready, for 
Colonel Gifford, instead of remaining with them, had 
gone out of the north gate to Mr. Bettridge's and 
there kept secret^. The others did not wait long for 
him, the guards soon perceived them coming down- 
stairs, and cried out, ' We are for you too,' and thence 
they marched to the main guard, who declared with 
them, crying, 'Out with all Irish ^'; ' and so,' says Colonel 

' Deposition, Lieutenant P. Granger, aged 28, Feb. 1654, Council Book 
of Cork, Caulfield, App. B. ^ Admiral Deane's Letter to the Speaker. 


Townesend, 'they secured the city and fort for the 
parliament of England and the then Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland.' Colonel Ryves' and Captain Myhill took 
the port, and Colonel Gifford claimed to have secured 
the governor, Colonel Stirling, 'who,' says a contem- 
porary news letter, 'had passed the last eight years 
in a dream, and never wakened till those rude fellows 
presumed to do it^.' 

Lady Fanshawe, poor thing, was in Cork at this 
time, and tells her side of the story. 

' I was in my bed when Cork revolted. My husband was 
gone on business to Kinsale. It was the beginning of No- 
vember. At midnight I heard the great guns go off, and 
thereupon I called up my family to rise. Hearing lament- 
able shrieks of men, women, and children, I asked at the 
window the cause. They told me they were all Irish, stripped 
and wounded and turned out of the town. That Colonel 
Jeffries with some others had possessed themselves of the 
town for Cromwell.' 

Probably Jeffries is put in mistake for Gififord, whose 
name is often spelt Jefford. He behaved with great 
courtesy to Lady Fanshawe, and gave her a pass to 
leave the town in safety. 

On the 23rd of October 'The Protestant army of 
Munster now in Corke' drew up a Resolution^ to send 
to Cromwell pleading, in excuse for their treaty with 
the Irish, that they had been ' under a mediate authority, 
seduced by the power and subtilty' of Lord Inchiquin 
to become slaves to the Irish. The first signature is 
Richard Townesend. The next problem was to carry 
this resolution to Cromwell, who was now before Ross, 
a walled town, which Taaf was holding with a strong 

^ Or Reeves, see chapter vii. 

^ Irish Penny Magazine, 106, Dub. 1833. 

■' Box 62, Tract 28 in Haliday Collect. Royal Irish Academy. 


forced Inchiquin had been there, but left it to make 
a vain attempt to regain Cork 2, and on the 19th, Lord 
Taaf, seeing the stern preparations to storm, preferred 
to escape the fate of the defenders of Drogheda and 
Wexford, and accepted Cromwell's terms. He marched 
away with his Irish troops, but the few hundred 
English of the Munster army who had been with him 
gladly joined the forces of their countrymen ^. 

Cromwell was comfortably quartered in Ross when 
he heard that the capital of Munster had surren- 
dered, and that Colonel Townesend was coming to 
bring him the submission of the city, but was hindered 
by a fort at the mouth of the harbour. Accordingly he 
sent General Blake in Captain Mildmay's frigate, the 
' Nonsuch,' to fetch him, and the ' Ginney ' frigate sailed 
with them. They passed the fort at the harbour mouth 
in safety, in spite of several shot which were fired at 
them, and as soon as they reached Cork, Colonel 
Townesend came aboard and was welcomed by Blake 
and the captains of the frigates. Giflford and Warden 
had been asked to take a hundred horse to assist 
Youghal, which had once more revolted against Inchi- 
quin, and had now imprisoned both Sir Percy Smith 
and ' one Johnson who had formerly betrayed them, 
and for that treachery was of a Lieutenant made by 
Inchiquin a Colonell of Horse *.' Blake with Towne- 
send on board repassed the fort at the harbour mouth, 
and the ' Nonsuch ' returned eastward along the coast. 
The two old comrades of the defence of Lyme must 
have had many memories to recall and many tales of 

' Carlyle's Cromwell. 

' Col. Ryve's Deposition ; Cromwell in Ireland, Denis Murphy, pp. 201- 
'' Carlyle's Cromwell, p. 314. 
* Letter from one on board the ' Ginney,' A Brie/e Relation, Nov. 13-20, 


their adventures since, to relate to one another as 
they sailed along, and Townesend doubtless explained 
the trials and perplexities of the Munster army, and 
the very difficult time through which he and his 
brother officers had just passed. He does not seem 
to have found his old friend an unsympathetic listener, 
for shortly after this time Blake wrote, ' I look upon 
it as an extraordinary and very seasonable mercy of 
God in stirring up and uniting so many resolute spirits 
to a work of so great consequence.' 

Off Dungarvan, the ' Nonsuch' met the ' Garland ' 
frigate with a transport having on board Colonel Phair 
and 500 foot destined for Cork. The wind which was 
favourable to the ' Nonsuch,' was foul for them, and 
learning from Colonel Townesend that Youghal had 
also declared for the Parliament, they steered for that 
place. Colonel Gififord, Colonel Warden and Major 
Purdon ('who,' says CromwelF, 'with Colonel Towne- 
send, have been very active instruments for the return 
both of Cork and Youghal to their obedience, having 
some of them adventured their lives twice or thrice to 
effect it') came off to meet them, bringing with them 
the Mayor of the town ; they were at first inclined to 
offer some propositions to Cromwell, but Lord Brog- 
hill, who was on board, assured them it would be more 
to their honour and advantage to make no conditions. 
As usual, he gained his point, and then landed with 
Phair and Sir William Fenton, and was received, in 
his own words, 'with all the real demonstrations of 
gladness an overjoyed people were capable of.' From 
Youghal Phair marched to Cork with 300 men, while 
Colonel Townesend and the other officers went on to 
carry the address of the city of Cork and resolutions 

' Carlyle, Cromwell, 318, in the letter to Lenthall previously quoted. 


of the garrison to Ross, which they reached on the 
13th of November^. 

The surrender of Cork and Youghal was indeed a 
'seasonable mercy.' The EngHsh army was suffering 
severely from exposure and the damp climate, which 
even Ormonde used to say 'retained a greater part of 
the original curse than the rest of the whole creation ! ' 
It was a matter of great importance to obtain such a 
large reinforcement of seasoned troops and comfortable 
winter quarters for the wearied army, which else would 
have had to be shipped back to England. In the words 
of Colonel Deane ^ : 

' Thus it hath pleased God of his infinite goodness to help 
when men were most weak after the taking of Ross and 
besieging of Duncannon what with sickness and (leaving 
men in) garrisons my Lord Lieutenant was very unable to 
attempt anything further upon the enemy without recruits.' 

' I hear,' said Cromwell, ' by Colonel Townesend that 
Baltimore, Castle Haven and other places of hard 
names are come in.' Munster had submitted. The 
Lord General established his headquarters at Youghal, 
and made progresses to Cork, Kinsale, Bandon, Skib- 
bereen and other towns in the province. Colonel 
Townesend and Colonel Gifford were appointed 
to command the two regiments formed out of the 
Cork garrison, the horse being under Lord Broghill, 
with Warden and Purdon as his Majors ^- 

The next year, 1650, the hollow truce between Or- 
monde and his Irish allies was broken, the Bishops 
declared Ormonde and his followers to be 'imps of 

' See Cromwell's answer, dated Nov.- 13th. 

^ Letter from Colonel Deane to the Speaker, printed for Robert Ibbitson 
dwelling in Smithfield, 1639, pp. 61-68. British Museum. 

^ Cromwell's reply to the letter of the soldiers of the gai risen of Corlv, 
'Youghal.' Youghal Council Book, Caulfield, App. A. 


Satan,' and pronounced sentence of excommunication 
against all who favoured them. In December, Or- 
monde, Inchiquin and the surviving Royalist leaders 
retired to France in despair. Broghill persuaded the 
Lord General to permit Lady Ormonde to reside on 
her Kilkenny estate and the Parliament to grant terms 
to Clanrickard, who died in London of a broken heart. 
Limerick and Galway capitulated, and Ireland was 



An entirely new chapter of Irish history had begun. 
After the chaos of the ten years' war the whole country 
had to be re-arranged. Some English settlers had been 
dispossessed during the rebellion, and now demanded 
to have their estates restored; adventurers who had 
advanced money for the expenses of the war expected 
to be compensated by grants of forfeited land ; soldiers 
were to be allotted portions in place of their arrears of 
pay; much land lay waste and deserted, its original 
owners having vanished during the ten years' blood- 
shed. The natives who had taken part in the rebelhon 
of 1641 were to be hunted down, and deprived of all 
their property; the other Irish were to be allowed 
indeed to exist, but most of them had to exchange the 
fertile pastures of the east for the barren wilderness 
of Connaught, and were removed thither under the 
direction of commissioners, one of whom was Colonel 
Edward D'Oyley. He may have recognised some of 
his old brothers in arms of Taaf's army^ among the 
hapless fugitives to whom their stern conquerors gave 
the choice of ' Hell or Connaught,' but they were after 

' See p. 70. 


all only sharing the same fate of the conquered that 
had robbed Colonel D'Oyley's own family of land and 
wealth ^. 

It is said that Cromwell remembered that Edward 
D'Oyley had once been a Royalist, and therefore never 
thoroughly trusted him: he was made governor of 
Jamaica ; but although it is to his good conduct alone 
that we owe the possession of that colony, he received 
no other reward than the approbation of his own con- 
science^. Even to Jamaica the faces and voices of 
the conquered Irish followed him, for the merchants 
of Bristol drove a prosperous trade by shipping off 
the widows and orphans of the war into shameful 
slavery in the Western plantation ^. Colonel D'Oyley 
returned later on to England, and died in Westminster 
in 1674. 

Among the adventurers who had advanced money to 
the amount of;^3oo is one Giles Townsend, whose name 
was found by John Sealy Townsend among the Dublin 
records ; and a Thomas Townsend was a dispossessed 
English settler, whose title was not affirmed till 
after the restoration*. He had owned much land in 
Kilkenny and Tipperary, and it appears that the adven- 
turers and soldiers, finding it in the hands of the Irish 
insurgents, had voted it to be forfeited. If this Thomas 
were a relation of Colonel Richard Townesend, his 
sufferings during the rebellion may have been a reason 
for his kinsman to volunteer in the avenging army of 
1647. There were certainly Townsends settled in 

' The magnificent manor house, Greenland House, the residence of his 
elder brother John, was ' beaten about the ears of the garrison.' Whitelock. 

^ Long's History of Jmnaica. 

^ Between 6000 and 7000 were transported, chiefly unmarried women 
and boys. Walpole, Hist. Kingdovn of Ireland^ 213. 

' Exchequer Records, Dublin, Roll 7, Skin 68. He was of Card Castle. 


County Cork before that year. Richard Townsend of 
the parish of Kinneigh, in 1630 became administrator 
to the will of his father-in-law, Francis Bennett, and 
the records of the Irish Court of Exchequer gave the 
name of a Miss Elizabeth Townsend, and the Court of 
Claims of an Edward Townsend. The will is also in 
existence of Thomas Townsend of Murragh 1636, and 
a Grace Townsend, daughter of Matthias Anstis of 
Bandon, has not been identified yet. She must have 
been a person of some position, as her second husband 
left a legacy to the poor of that town ^. 

Carte says that Colonel Townesend had brothers in 
Ireland, and that a numerous family of the name re- 
sided in County Cork before the rebellion, who were 
probably his relatives ; but no authority is given for this 
statement, which is contradicted by the constant family 
tradition, except that of Mrs. Edward Synge Towns- 
hend (born in 1742), who believed Colonel Richard's 
grandfather to have been the first settler. 

But it seems very improbable that these Townsends 
were connected with the family at Castle Townsend, 
for it has always been marked by such strong family 
feeling, and has kept up traditional kinship so carefully, 
that it could scarcely have been ignorant of cousins 
living but a few miles off. Also some of the members 
of the family have been so long-lived that traditions 
have had a great chance of being remembered, and 
they handed down no tradition of an Irish origin to the 

To return to the seventeenth century. Lord Clarendon 
says that Cromwell was anxious to disband ^ the Munster 

' Bennett's History of Bandon. 

^ Cromwell cashiered Jones' regiments on his arrival in Dublin, 1649. 


army and get rid of it quietly, knowing that it had 
served the Pariiament too long to be cordially on his 
side. Indeed it barely escaped the fate of the Presby- 
terians of the North of Ireland and of the many who 
found it difficult to prove their ' constant good affection ' 
to the Commonwealth of England, as any one who had 
even paid a forced contribution to a papist or royahst 
officer was held to have shown no constant good 
affection ! However, the Munster army was graciously 
pardoned, and even ^ applauded for having given timely 
help in 1649, although they had been guilty of a tempo- 
rary defection in 1648. 

The army was disbanded and paid off gradually as 
the Court of Claims could allot the claim, which was 
granted in satisfaction of arrears of pay. In February, 
1654, many of those engaged in the ' bringing over of 
Cork' made their depositions^, describing the whole 
event. Among others was Colonel Richard Townesend, 
described as now resident in Castlehaven, aged 36, so 
he seems to have settled in the West immediately 
after the rendering of the city, if not earlier. His name 
appears in no list of those to whom land was given in 
payment of arrears, so it is probable that he bought it. 
There were plenty of estates for sale just then, many of 
the soldiers gambled away their rights before receiving 
the shares, others gladly sold, wishing to return to 
England, or being in immediate need of money; and 
some of the original owners ^, when they regained their 
lands, did not care to live in the country under its new 

Colonel Townesend seems to have left the army as 

' Ordinances of Cromwell, 16^^. 

^ See Council Book of Cork. 

' Petitions to Court of Claims. John Sealy Townshend. 


soon as he could with honour, for he was not present 
at a council of war held in Cork, Dec. 1654. It is said ^ 
that this was the reason that he had to buy land instead 
of being granted a lot by Cromwell. 

Many men who preferred the more vivid life of towns 
and sought chances for satisfying their ambition would 
not have felt tempted to settle among the bogs and 
forests, the wild wolves and wilder Irish; but those 
who were weary of the strife of parties and sects in 
England and saw the calm that settled down over 
conquered Ireland, gladly turned from politics to make 
grass grow and cornfields wave, where the oak woods 
slope down to the lovely bays of West Carbery. 

Monk had tried to leave the army and settle in 
Ireland; Lady Fanshawe had described the pleasures 
and conveniences of life in County Cork, so that even 
if Colonel Townesend had no relatives already in the 
country, he was far from being singular among his 
contemporaries in wishing to become a Munster land- 
owner. He was a young man to retire from military 
life, which he must have liked, or he would hardly have 
volunteered for service in Ireland, when so many officers 
took the opportunity of leaving the army in 1647. But 
his commander Fairfax had left the army while yet a 
young man and full of ambition. He was thirty-eight, 
and Colonel Townesend was thirty-six. Fairfax's own 
poem on country life may represent the feeling of many 
another officer weary of the ' civil jar.' 

O how I love these solitudes 
And places silent as the night, 
There where no thronging multitudes 
Disturb with noise their sweet delight ! 

'■ John Sealy Townshend, who also says he saw the deeds of Colonel 
Townesend's purchases of claims and titles in the Records of the Court of 
Claims in the Customs House, Dublin. (Letter, dated 1846.) 


Oh how mine eyes are pleased to see 

Oaks that such spreading branches bear, 

Which from old Time's nativity 

And the envy of many a year 

Are still green, beautiful and fair 

As in the world's first day they were^.' 

How unlike all this is to the blood-thirst of those who 
would ' wade through slaughter to a throne ! ' The 
typical English man of action, having done his duty in 
the field, desires above all earthly things the simple 
life of a country gentleman, and Colonel Townesend 
followed no unworthy example when he chose to settle 
down as a landowner in West Carbery. 

Though he had served in the campaigns against the 
Irish he seems to have been on friendly terms with 
all his neighbours, the Irishman Cornehus O'Dris- 
coll, who gave his name to one of the Colonel's sons, 
the dispossessed McCartie Reagh, and the Romanist 
Copinger, descendant of the grim old tyrant who, 
tradition says, hanged men to the gables of his great 
mansion at Copinger's Court. So friendly were the 
Copingers to the Townesends that one of the Copin- 
ger's, Domenic, actually married Colonel Townesend's 
daughter Dorothea^. 

There were other neighbours too : Colonel Thomas 
Becher was a very great man, descended from a De 
Bridgecourt who followed Queen Philippa from Hai- 
nault, and now ruled over his estates and commanded 
a garrison of soldiers at his castle on Shirkin Island, 
opposite Baltimore ; and round ' Protestant Bandon ' 
dwelt the sons of Ehzabethan settlers who kept up 
their English faith, Hulls and Synges; many of the 
' forty-nine ' officers also settled here. Sweet and 

' Great Lord Fairfax, C. Markham, p. 352, Appendix. 
^ See chap. viii. 


Arnop and Gifford, and became burgesses of the little 
town of Clonakilty where their faded signatures may- 
still be seen in the Council book\ Most of the 
neighbouring gentry seem to have become burgesses 
and taken their turns in being Sovereign or Mayor. 
One wonders if the gentlemen ever talked politics after 
the meetings were over, or if such subjects were too 
dangerous to be mentioned. 

The Earl of Carbery in 1650 was Richard Vaughan, 
who married Lady Alice Egerton the heroine of 
Comus, and the philosopher Robert Boyle was son 
of the Earl of Cork, so some echoes from the world 
of science and poetry may have penetrated the western 
wilds along with the news-letters bearing the tidings 
of Cromwell's victories in Scotland. 

Castlehaven Castle was the nearest mansion to 
Colonel Townesend's estates, but its owner. Lord 
Castlehaven, had been one of the chief leaders of the 
Irish in the late war, and now Colonel Salmon held 
the Castle for the English Parliament. Colonel Salmon 
had been very active ^ in organising the chase of the 
Algerine rovers, who had burnt and sacked Baltimore 
not twenty years before, but the news was carried to 
Castlehaven too late and none of the unhappy captives 
were rescued. The Cromwellian settlers held their 
land with a stronger hand, and we hear of no more 
'pirate galleys warping down.' 

During the allotment of lands for payment of arrears 
Sir William Petty was commissioned to make a survey 
in which those who received lands were set down by 
regiments and which was therefore known as the Down 
survey. In this early account of the county, Castle- 

1 In the possession of Rev. J. H. Townsend of Tunbridge Wells. 
^ Caulfield, Annals of Kinsale. 


haven and the old burying-ground by the well of St. 
Barrahane are accurately described. Many a Towns- 
end has been laid in that burying-ground, and the 
grove of ancient ash-trees still shades the Holy Well, 
but of the 'two English-built houses' mentioned in the 
survey, there only remain the ruins of the Castle from 
which the Haven takes its name. It was originally a 
fortress of the Driscolls, and had been the scene of 
many a hard-fought engagement. Here the Spaniard 
landed two thousand men to reinforce Red Hugh 
O'Donnel at Kinsale, and their entrenchments are still 
visible on Galleon Point, and here Red Hugh bid 
farewell for ever to his country after his defeat in 1602. 

The following year, 1603, there was a notable sea- 
fight in the Haven, when Sir Richard Levison defeated 
the Spanish admiral, and the Spaniards, English, and 
Irish, all had a sort of scramble for the Castle which 
finally fell into the hands of the English. 

But this fighting was half a century back, and only 
the cannon shot in the walls of the Castle remained 
to show that Colonel Townesend was not the first 
soldier who had come to Castlehaven. 

No dweUing-house is shown in the survey near the 
present Castle Townshend, a long mile up the bay. 
The land is described as for the most part profitable, 
but some rocky and boggy, and vessels of 500 tons 
can ride safely within the harbour. 

The Castle of Rahine^ stands on the opposite side 
of the bay; the lands around had been ravaged in 
1649, and it is probable that the castle was bombarded 
in that year by some ships from the harbour. It 
formed part of Colonel Townesend's estates, but^ a 

' Donovan, Sketches in Carbery, i6i. 

- Note by Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend. 


Townshend heiress carried that portion of the property 
to the Becher family. Here Colonel Townesend seems 
to have lived quietly for the next few years, reclaiming 
land and building the little fortress whose ruins still 
look out over the bay. 

From the description given in Lord Orrery's state 
letters, we gather that the gentry of West Carbery 
had plenty of work in keeping down the ' Woodkerns ' 
who infested the wild forest country. The saying still 
survives ' Beyond the Leap ^, beyond the law,' and the 
only law could be that of the stronger hand. Probably 
Colonel Townesend had stout hearts by his side, for 
the English soldiers of '49' gladly settled round the 
officers they trusted. But it must have been a lonely 
life for the scattered English settlers; communication 
by land must have been difficult, where moorland and 
bogs alternated with forest-covered hills, and the chief 
tidings we have of Castle Townshend for the next 
few years come from the sea. In February, 1654, 
the haven was visited by a ship of war, the ' Little 
Charity^.' Captain Robert Haytubbe reported to the 
Admiral that he had been obliged through stress of 
weather and lack of horsemeat to bear up towards 
Ireland and put in to Castlehaven. ' Finding no 
relief here, he sent his steward to the Victualler at 
Kinsale for a supply, but he was ordered not to furnish 
any ship not listed to attend that coast. Addressed 
Colonel Phaer, Governor of Cork, who caused Colonel 
Townesend to furnish horsemeat.' 

Probably the devastations of the long war had made 
hay and corn scarce, but it is satisfactory to know that 
at last the bonds of red tape relaxed and allowed 

' A gorge a few miles east of Castle Townshend. 

^ Collect. State Papers, Domes. Ser., a.d. 1654, p. 433. 

H 2 


Colonel Townesend to supply the poor horses with 
provender. It would be interesting to follow the for- 
tunes of the ' Little Charity' and know whether she bore 
out the promises of her name under Blake at Cadiz that 
year, or carried greetings from his kinsman to Colonel 
D'Oyley in Jamaica, where Penn's squadron was then 

Although the beautiful bays and labyrinth of islands 
that fringe West Carbery were convenient shelters for 
wind-bound vessels, they might also be lurking places 
for more dangerous visitors. No one knew when the 
privateers of Prince Rupert, or slavers from Algiers, or 
ships of war of France or Spain or Holland, might 
make a dash on the coast, so several English ships were 
kept ' plying ' between the Land's End and Kinsale, to 
guard against the roving enemy. Rich prizes often fell 
into the hands of these coastguards, and when most 
unknown ships were enemies, it is no wonder that 
sometimes a mistake was made and a friendly ship was 

A letter from Colonel Townesend which was for- 
warded to the Lord General Fleetwood in April 1654, 
shows his hot anger at such a mistake. He writes to 
Colonel Phaire, the Governor of Cork, about a ship 
which had been driven by stress of weather to take 
refuge in Timoleague (Courtmacsherry) bay. She car- 
ried twenty-four guns, and was richly laden with 
elephants' teeth, leopard skins, and gold ore. As it 
was uncertain to what country she belonged. Colonel 
Phaire directed Colonel Townesend and Captain Robert 
Gookin to take possession of the ship and examine the 
captain. His answer is as follows ^ :— 

' Phaire to Fleetwood, Add. MSS. Brit. Mus., f. i68. Colonel Richard 
Townsend, Add. MSS., Brit. Mus. 22, 546, f. 172. 



'According to your order we sent for the officers and 
seamen in the Patience of Courland and find upon examin- 
ation that the shipp belongeth to the Duke of that country 
of which the King of Poland is Protector. During the time 
of examination, and after we had taken the vessel and secured 
the seamen and officers on shore, three or four ffi-igatts came 
and boarded her, and although we sent them an accompt of 
our power and proceedings, the captain of the Nicodemus 
forced the ship to sayle and returned us no other answer 
but we were fooles : Sir, unless there be more discovered 
than yet is evident to us, the vessel is not prize, for neither 
the King of Poland or Duke of Courland are enemyes to 
the Commonwealth of England and besides that they are 
Protestants. The violence they have offered by plundering 
I doubt they are not able to repayre : The merchants chest 
is worth twenty thousand pounds: The Masters three oj four 
thousand pounds : Wee indeed were very careful that n'oo 
wrong might be done and therefore suffered not the soldiers 
to go aboard the shipp whilst the men were on shoar : But 
Liv'. Codd siezed the shipp yesterday before witnesses and 
all the officers and men secured on shore, wee could not pro- 
ceede in the examinacion soo farre as we intended, because 
of the trouble of the Man of Warr, the ship is by them most 
unworthily plundered : Wee doo therefore desire you to send 
to the governor of Kinsale that those Captaines may be 
secured for certainly the goods between decks were worth 
sixty thousand pounds and will be proved so. Pray consider 
of it and take care that the officers may be possessed of their 
shipp and the plundering Cap*^ secured : I am resolved to 
attend your further orders at Kinsale for rather than such an 
unworthy action shall pass unpunished I will prosecute the 
business at Dublin myselfe. 

I am yo'' servant, 

Rob* Gookine, 

& I am both friend & servant. 

Rich. Townsend.' 


At first it seems the ships were very proud of their 
exploit. Captain Cowes of the 'Cat Pink'^ reported 
to the Admiral that the ' Nicodemus ' with his assist- 
ance had taken a ship richly laden, which he hears by 
Captain Gookin, Commander of 'Timilege Castle,' is 
from Guinea, and belongs to the Duke of Courland. 

But Colonel Townesend's protests were heard, and on 
the third of July Captain Robinson of the ' Greyhound ' 
writes ^ ' that the information sent against him as to 
staying a ship near Kinsale was premature, she was 
discharged when found to belong to the Duke of Cour- 
land, and the Master and Merchant satisfied the Lord 
General, as also Captain Gookin and Colonel Townson 
(sic) that they had not been wronged.' 

All's well that ends well, but it is to be hoped the 
Captain of the ' Nicodemus ' apologised for his strong 
language ! 

In the spring of 1656 Colonel Richard Townesend 
of Castletown, alias Castlehaven, ' obtained leave from 
the Sovereign of Kinsale, who acted as admiral of the 
south-western coast of Cork, to raise two sunken guns 
out of the channel of Castlehaven and what more may 
be found there as wreck of the sea ^.' 

The next year, 1657 ^, Henry Cromwell, the wise and 
kindly Lord Lieutenant, made a progress to Cork, and 
from thence visited all the harbours upon the western 
coast as far as Bandon, so very possibly he inspected 

But no sooner was the country sinking into calm, 
than the Restoration revived all the land questions 
and the rivalry between parties. Ireland had been quiet 

' Domes. State Papers, May 7, 1654. 

" Apjnals 0/ Kinsale, Caulfield (Council book extracts), p. 23. 

^ Memoirs of Oliver Cromwell^ II. 542. 


as a conquered country is quiet, one party was trium- 
phant, the other crushed,— now all sides started into 
new life. Those who had lost their properties through 
their loyalty to the King, naturally expected to regain 
them ; the large number of men who had purchased 
forfeited lands, or received estates in return for money 
'adventured' or advanced, were indignant at being 
robbed of their new possessions; while the original 
Irish owners of the country had some hopes that as 
the Enghsh were falling out with each other, they 
might come by their own again. The work of setting 
out land and deciding the arrears of soldiers' pay under 
the Commonwealth was not finished, and here were 
new commissions to alter all that had been done! 

The Kingi had returned accompanied by a crowd 
of officers who had faithfully served him till June 1649, 
when they were driven from Ireland by Cromwell. 
These were known as the '49 officers.' They must 
not be confused with those who had been 'active in 
the rendition ' of Munster to Cromwell, who had been 
given lands under the name of ' 49 arrears.' The 
sworn depositions of these ' active ' gentlemen were 
used against them at the Restoration to bar their 
claims, and their ' 49 arrears ' were handed by the Act 
of Settlement to the ' 49 officers ' whom they had 
turned out of Munster. How Colonel Townesend and 
some of his friends managed to escape this fate is still 
a mystery, but he continued to possess his lands while 
Jephson and others were driven to rebellion by the 
forfeiture. All these conflicting demands were brought 
before two Courts of Claims. The first began to hear 
cases in 1663, and was principally occupied in deciding 
on the guilt or innocency of those who had property 

' Report on Carle Papers, Bod. Lib., p. 146. 


in Ireland at the time of the RebelHon in 1641. Among 
the Munster gentlemen who received ' decrees of Inno- 
cency' were some of the names of Galway, Fleming, 
Becher, and French, whom we meet later on inter- 
marrying with the Townsend family. 

In order to reconcile the claims of these ' Innocents ' 
with those of the ' 49 officers,' and to provide for the 
immense grants to favourites with which Charles II 
proceeded to complicate matters, a Bill was prepared 
by Ormonde proposing that adventurers, soldiers, and 
those deriving from them, should resign one-third of 
the lands enjoyed by them on the 7th of May 1659^. 
This Bill was passed in 1665, and a new Court of Claims 
sat in 1666 to issue patents and certificates of what lands 
each man was entitled to ^ 

The ancestors of most of the landowners in Cork 
received these certificates ; Beamish, Becher, Cox, Fol- 
liott, Fleming, Hull, Hungerford, Jefford, Hodder, 
Owen, Riche, Foulke, French and Herbert are among 
them. Jeremy Donovan received a patent for land 
named Keamore, which he had purchased from Colonel 
Townesend, and Colonel Townesend received one for 
land purchased from Lord Kingston, named Ohe or 
Millane, and for his grants in Carbery^. 

It is difficult to know exactly what grants mean in 
this case. James, Duke of York, received 'grants 'in 
eighteen counties, so the word cannot always mean 

' See Appendix D. for Colonel Townesend's third of the lands of Drum- 

^ Some of these certificates are in the Remembrancer's Office of the 
Dublin Court of Exchequer, the rest in the Rolls Office of the Court of 
Chancery. The ones relating to Colonel Townesend are Roll 30 and Roll 4, 
skin 16, 68, 88, 94, 66 in the Exchange Office. Katherine Barry, Roll 16, 
skin 46 ; Elizabeth Townshend, Roll 21, skin 29. (J. Sealy Townshend — to 
whom the above account of the Court of Claims is due.) 

' Report oj Conimis. of Public Records, 1821-1829. 


'soldiers' lots.' Yet Lord Orrery long after spoke of 
Colonel Townesend's estates as 'lots,' and he had 
made his depositions in Cork with the others when 
the soldiers' lots were being divided, and claimed 
his lands, as did Gifford and Warden, as a 'soldier 
serving in Ireland in the Commonwealth period ^' 

The first patent to Colonel Townesend is dated i8th 
Charles II, enrolled August 1666, the second patent, 
the 2oth Charles II, enrolled August 15, 1668, the third 
is dated August 12, 1679, and enrolled Feb. 4, 1680. 
It is beheved that the flattering terms of these patents, 
with their grants of free chase and free warren, were 
due to Colonel Townesend's connection with Lord 
Clarendon and the Duke of York, through his wife 
Hildegardis Hyde ". 

Among the '49' officers who were settled in Co. 
Cork were Noblett Dunscombe, Captain John Sweet, 
Nicolas and Robert Corker, and several Copingers, 
and also, wonderful to say, Lord Broghill ! He 
certainly had fought previous to 1649, and now that 
he was in favour at court and had been created Earl 
of Orrery, it was not desirable to inquire too closely 
how long he had fought on each side! As well as 
the estates now assured to him Colonel Townesend 
purchased large quantities of land from time to time ^. 

The Irish parliament met again, for the first time 
since Cromwell had united it with England, in 
Chichester House, Dublin, in May 1661. It was strictly 
composed of the English settlers, ' men of the new 
interest ' as they were called. Colonel Townesend sat 
as a member for Baltimore, but, in spite of the interest 

^ Records of Ireland^ vol. 1816-1820, p. 249, Gilbert. 
^ See Appendix to this Cliapter for abstract of patent. 
^ See List of lands in Appendix to this Chapter. 


he must have felt in the action of the Parliament on the 
land question, he did not often appear there, and was 
actually fined for non-attendance. 

One of the grandest sights which introduced the 
new order of things in Ireland was the consecration 
of twelve bishops in St. Patrick's Cathedral. One of 
these was Edward Synge, Bishop of Limerick, whose 
daughter Mary afterwards married Colonel Townes- 
end's second son and heir by survival, Bryan. It ap- 
pears that St. Patrick's had become much dilapidated 
during the commotions and heresies of the Civil Wars, 
and those whose orthodoxy was doubtful were glad 
to raise a subscription towards the restoration of the 
cathedral and of their own good characters. Jones, 
Bishop of Clogher, had actually joined the army of 
Cromwell as scoutmaster, and was very active in this 
matter, and the Primate writes in 1660 ' the army in 
Ireland will suffer none to build or repair St. Patrick's 
Church in Dublin but themselves^.' 

For a while Colonel Townesend seems to have been 
content to build a small fort to hold his lands at Castle- 
townsend, and resided at Kilbrittan Castle, a very 
splendid pile overlooking Courtmacsherry Bay, which 
had been forfeited by the head of the McCarthies for 
his participation in the RebeUion of 1641. McCarthie 
Reagh naturally considered himself still the rightful 
owner of the land, which had only been wrested from 
him by the English arms, but the chivalrous courtesy 
of the new comer so won upon the chieftain that in 
his will he bequeathed to ' Colonel Dick Townesend, 
M.P.' all his rights on his vast territories. The will 
has been seen by many people who are yet alive, 
and was examined by the late Timothy McCarthy 

' Report on Carte Papers, Bod. Lib., p. 36. 


Downing, M.P. for Co. Cork. It is said that most of 
the dispossessed Irish gentry carried their title deeds 
with them when driven from their homes, hoping that 
a turn of fortune might yet bring them back to their 
own, continuing to devise and settle the lands, and 
charge them with jointures as though their rights were 
still tangible ; so it is interesting to know that a certain 
part of Colonel Townesend's estates were held not only 
by grant or purchase, but directly from the native 
owner. In Colonel Townesend's patent the 8000 acres 
forming the Manor of Bridge Town are called his 
'lawful inheritance.' The Historical Pedigree of the 
McCarthys ^ makes no mention of this will. The 
McCarthy Reagh at this date was Charles, who married 
Ellen, daughter of Lord Muskerry, so the tradition that 
he married Mary Townshend cannot be correct, but 
his grandfather, Donal Pipi, had done his best to 
abolish the law of inheritance by Tanistry, so Charles 
may have felt he had the right to will his property 
away from his own family. 

At Kilbrittan Castle Colonel Townesend's sixth son 
Philip was born in 1664. Some people think that 
Colonel Townesend's first wife Hildigardis died soon 
after the birth of Bryan, as the rest of the family were 
much younger, and in 1666 a lease was signed by 
Richard Townesend and Mary his wife. But as no 
descendants of Colonel Townesend's younger sons 
survived, no information concerning their mother has 
been preserved. 

The ruins of Colonel Townesend's first dwelling 
of Castle Townshend still exist, though several sieges 
have left but shattered remains I It seems to have 

' By Daniel McCarthy Glas., Exeter, 168. 

2 Judge Fitz-Hcnry Townshend, and Miss Hickson. 


consisted of a dwelling-house and small courtyard all 
comprised in a square enclosure with a bastion at each 
angle, pierced with loopholes for musketry and some 
embrasures for small cannon. It was built on a well- 
chosen site of some strength. The dwelhng-house 
consisted of two stories, the upper one overlooking 
the harbour. The lower one must have been lighted 
from the court, on the outer side of which was a 
parapet for defending the wall. It seems to have been 
hastily built, as the stones are small and not well put 

A larger mansion appears to have been built before 
long, which was valued at ^40,000, when destroyed in 
the troubles of 1690. At one of these dwellings, tra- 
dition ^ says. Colonel Townesend's eldest daughter 
Hildigard died, and was buried in the ancient grave- 
yard on Horse Island at the entrance to Castlehaven. 
There is a large stone now covered by the earth of 
the mound or fence which surrounds the burial-place, 
which was said to mark her grave. It bears no trace 
of inscription on any part which is visible^. 

At Castle Townshend was born in 1665 Colonel 
Townesend's seventh son, William, and the next year 
there must have been gay doings, for John, the eldest 
son, brought home his girl-bride. Lady Catherine 
Barry, daughter of the Earl of Barrymore and great- 
niece of Lord Broghill. 

But that very year a French ship sailed up the Ken- 
mare river, and rumours of an invasion grew more 
rife. The Romanist clergy had held a convention in 
June, and it was expected that they would ask the 
King to pardon their share in the rebeUion of 1641, 

' John Sealy Townshend heard this from Mrs. Becher. 
^ Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend. 

""»: — ^tS 


but a Sturdy bishop ^ said they were aware of no crime 
of which they had been guilty, and needed no pardon. 
This boldness showed pretty plainly that they had 
powerful allies behind them, and preparations were 
hastened on to repel the threatened invasion from 
France. The national alarm was increased by a plot 
which Lord Orrery discovered among the remains of 
the old republican party, who hoped to regain their 
lots of land and restore the old Long Parliament; so 
that between fears of ' fanatics ' on the one hand and 
of Irish rebels and French soldiers on the other, the 
Lord Lieutenant Ormonde hardly knew whom to trust, 
and Orrery hastened from place to place in Munster, 
repairing fortifications, watching suspected traitors, 
raising troops, and debating which English protestants 
might be trusted with arms. He says in his letters 
to Ormonde that he was so weak in his feet that he 
was scarce able to go, but he could ride in a coach 
or on horseback ; and he rode to good purpose. 

At Bandon he had an interview with the principal 
gentry, which he reported to Lord Ormonde. But the 
Lord Lieutenant was suspicious of the old Parliament 
men settled in the west, and their claims to his con- 
fidence had to be urged again and again. Orrery's 
own words tell the story best. He writes to the Duke 
of Ormonde from Charleville, June 15, 1666^- 

' I would be glad to know if the French intend to invade 
Ireland, whether it be with the body of an army or only 4000 
or 5000 men to join with the discontented natives. I beseech 
your grace let me not be tied to make the militia troops but 
fifty, for some gentlemen will raise me eighty, some ninety, 
some seventy, some sixty horse in a troop, and if we limit 
them all to fifty all these horse will be lost, for they will not 

' Bennett. ^ State Letters, p. 154. 


serve in militias but under those they love well. My Lord 
Barrimore's Company is all in Innisshirkin and Crook- 

' I humbly acquaint your grace that I believe if the French 
invade us or the Irish rise, there are very few English (that 
are not damnable fanatics indeed), who will not oppose either. 
The chief men in the West of the country besides Mr. Richard 
Hull and Cornet Emanuel More are Col. John Giffard (stc) 
and Col. Richard Townesend, Lieut.-Col. William Arnop, 
and Capt. Robert Cooking. Giffard is a stout man and a 
good officer and very poor ; Arnop is somewhat crazed ; 
Townesend and Gooking rich, and men of good brains, and 
they have been with me to protest their loyalty and offer their 
services. All they have in the world depends on their new 
titles and I do believe they would fight heartily against the 
French or Irish. But I would not offer them for any em- 
plo3mients in the militia till first I had known your Graces 
pleasure concerning them. They are able to make above 
three hundred horse and four hundred foot in the West. 
Giffard and Townesend are fit to command foot. Moore is 
a good horse soldier and an honest man. 

'June 22, 1666. We can do nothing without arms, the 
English generally having been disarmed three years ago. 
The militia arms which are distributed shall be kept in safe 
places and in the officers' hands, but the arms for the town 
militias I humbly conceive may be in the townsmen's hands. 
Your Grace finds in the enclosed list that Col. Townesend 
and Col. Giffard are prepared for a foot company each, 
which I am humbly of opinion may safely be allowed con- 
sidering they live both in West Carbery where their lots are 
and where only they can raise these two foot companies, and 
they only fit to defend those wild places in which are great 
crowds of illaffected Irish, which these two will best keep in 
awe, so that thereby they may do much good and can do no 
hurt, and self interest binds them to defend their own stakes. 
Besides being recommended by the country it would be some 
cause of trouble to be laid aside in so inconsiderable a thing 
in itself, and which may be of good use in that wild country 
which no army forces can mind.' 


At last Orrery got his way, and the companies of 
militia were formed. No regiments were raised, and 
the rank of Colonel was not conferred on any of the 
gentry, but 300 horse and 400 foot were ready to fight 
for their country. Lord Orrery being Chief Com- 
mander, the first troop of cavalry was commanded 
by Major Anthony Woodbiflfe, Lieutenant Emanuel 
Moore, Cornet Frances Armitage, Quarter- Master R. 
Harris. The second troop, Captain Robert Cooking, 
Lieutenant G. Syms, Cornet J. Langton, Quarter-Master 
W. Baldwin. Third troop. Captain R. Hull, Lieutenant 
T. Becher, Cornet Bryan Townesend, Quarter-Master 
Edward Townesend, while Colonel Richard Townes- 
end, Colonel John Giffard, Captain John Freake, were 
all captains of foot, and Mr. Francis Beamish, ensign. 

My Lord Barrimore was guarding Sherkin Island 
and Crookhaven, and it seemed likely that John 
Townesend and his bride had gone to Kilbrittan 
Castle, as he is called in the pedigree John of Timo- 
league. Colonel Townesend and his elder unmarried 
sons were away with their troops, when a band of 
armed Irish saw their opportunity and dashed down 
upon Castletown. The Colonel's wife fled — but 
fortunately there were friends at hand; Cornelius 
O'Donovan was one of the native chieftains whose 
friendship had been gained by the English family, and 
he welcomed the fugitives to his home. Some autho- 
rities call him O'Donovan and others O'Driscol, but 
however this may be, his christian name was Cor- 
nehus, and when Colonel Townesend's eighth son was 
born beneath his hospitable roof, the grateful parents 
named the child CorneHus^ 

The next trouble that threatened Munster came from 

' See Memoir of Cornelius Townshend, chap. viii. 


England not from France. The English commons 
appeared to envy the prosperity of their fellow-subjects 
in Ireland \ The importation of cattle from the rich 
pastures of the Emerald Isle had always been looked 
on with jealousy, and in 1665 a bill was passed pro- 
hibiting their introduction to England. The Duke of 
Ormonde seeing the people impoverished, the army 
mutinous for want of pay, and the Romanists and 
repubhcans both busy with plots, acted with caution 
and vigilance. The difficulties under which he laboured 
may be guessed when even the Irish contribution of 
30,000 beeves (all they had to offer) to the sufferers 
from the Fire of London was ungratefully represented 
to be an endeavour to defeat the act prohibiting the 
export of Irish cattle. 

During the debate on that bill the profligate Buck- 
ingham echoed the cheap sneer so often used against 
the sister Island, ' None could oppose this bill,' he 
exclaimed, ' save those who had Irish estates or Irish 
understandings.' He was promptly challenged by the 
gallant Ossory, Lord Ormonde's son, but Buckingham's 
blade was busy with less reputable quarrels and he 
preferred to have his challenger sent to the Tower. 

The turns of Fortune's wheel raised Romanist and 
Protestant alternately in Ireland, and those who were 
down were low indeed. As far as the cynical care- 
lessness of Charles II let him favour any form of 
religion, he preferred that of his patron Louis of 
France, which his brother and heir, the Duke of York, 
had openly embraced. It was felt too at Court that 
the aid of the Irish Romanists might be valuable in 
counteracting the influence of Shaftesbury, who was 
the open enemy of the Duke of York, and even put 

' Leland, History of Ireland, iii. 442. 


forward Monmouth as a desirable protestant heir to 
the Crown. 

So in 1670, when Ormonde was replaced by Berkeley, 
a marked degree of favour was shown to the Romanists ; 
the Chief Secretary expressed a wish that high mass 
might soon be celebrated in Christ Church Cathedral ; 
an attempt was made to introduce Romanists into the 
Corporation of Dublin, and a petition was drawn up 
praying the King to revise the Act of Settlement on 
which the possessions of all Protestant landowners 
depended. The country was filled with alarm, and 
even the English Parliament was aroused. Berkeley 
was removed, and Essex was sent to Ireland as a harm- 
less Viceroy who might try to please all parties ; but 
he found it hardly possible to steer his way among the 
conflicting interests that disturbed the country, and 
compared it in one of his letters to a deer flung to 
the mercies of a pack of hounds. 

Then came the wild ' No Popery ' scare roused by 
Titus Gates' romance of a ' popish plot,' and the Protes- 
tant side came uppermost again. The terrors of the 
country had to be pacified by the marriage of Mary, 
eldest daughter of the Duke of York, to the Protestant 
champion, William of Orange, and the King, although 
defeated in his plans for the time, was consoled by a 
fresh secret treaty and more subsidies from France. 
The English agitations were reflected in Ireland ; it was 
hard to find any ruler for it who could be trusted. 
One April day the aged Duke of Ormonde was seen 
at Court. 'Yonder comes Ormonde,' said the King, 
' I have done all in my power to disoblige him, but he 
will remain loyal, I must even employ him again, and 
he is the fittest person to govern Ireland.' So in 1677 
Ormonde returned to Dublin, and although he had no 


belief in the wild stories of plots and French invasion, 
he was forced by public opinion to adopt exceedingly 
severe measures against the Roman Catholics. 

During these years of tumult nothing of note occurred 
at Castle Townshend. In 1671 Colonel Townshend^ 
was High Sheriff for the County and was present at 
Council meetings at Clonakilty ; in 1674 John and 
Cornelius Townesend's names are entered in the 
Council book, and in 1675 John was sovereign. 

Many of the Colonel's contemporaries were dropping 
from his side ; a man of sixty was an old man in those 
days. Edward Synge, Bishop of Cork, died 1678, the 
silver-tongued Orrery in 1679, and the chivalrous Ossory 
in 1690. About 1681 Bryan Townesend married Mary 
Synge, daughter of the late Bishop of Cork. 

In 1682 land was mortgaged by Colonel Townesend, 
and the following year he borrowed another ;£'4oo. 
This may have been to buy more land, as his sons 
stood surety with him, and the estate of Derry, Ross- 
carbery, is said to have been bought in 1686, but 
probably the shadows of the coming troubles were plain 
enough to warn the Protestant gentry to strengthen 
their fortifications and have ready money in hand. 
The fear that landowners felt for the safety of their 
estates was soon justified, and even the McCarthy 
Reagh's will did not secure all Colonel Townshend's 
lands. In the 'Commission of Grace' it was enacted 
that by 'virtue of a fine of .£"20 by our well beloved 
subject Jeremy Cartie, Esq. ... we do give, grant, 
bargain, sell and confirm to the said Jeremy Cartie 
all the Castles, towns, villages, &c. in spite of all acts 
of Settlement and especially of The Act of Settlement,' 
and so Garrantony Reagh was lost to the Townshends. 

' Spelt thus by Lodge, Lib. Mun. 


This Jeremy Cartie was youngest son of Tadvig an 
Duna 1st, known as 'the festive,' who had feasted 
away most of his possessions. 

That same year, 1685, King Charles the Second died, 
and the storm that had been gathering broke over the 
Protestants of Ireland. At Bandon ^ Sir Edward Moore 
was charged with high treason, and Edward Riggs 
was accused of saying that if he could not live quietly 
in Ireland he would go to England. They were ac- 
quitted, but no gentry were safe from the charges of 
informers, the Protestant miHtia was disbanded and 
disarmed, leaving the dwellers in the wilder parts of 
the country at the mercy of the roving bands of free- 
booters who were beginning to infest the country. 

It was soon seen that King James intended to favour 
the Romanists, and only the Romanists ; an agitation 
was set on foot to repeal the Act of Settlement, and 
it was hinted to the Protestants that they would be 
wise to make terms and surrender a third of their 
estates before letting matters come to extremities. The 
Viceroy Clarendon was told that the King's servant 
ought to be of the King's religion, and the Romanist 
Tyrconnell replaced him as Lord Lieutenant. It is 
said that the King, knowing that his legal successors, 
Mary and WiUiam of Orange, would alter all his 
system of government, determined to make Ireland 
into a safe refuge for his Romanist subjects after his 
death. The Protestant burgesses of towns were warned 
that they must not fill their corporation with men of 
their own creed, and any post of honour now became 
a post of danger. The account of the meeting of 
burgesses of Clonakilty tells its own tale^. 

' Bennett, History of Bandon. 
^ Council Book of Clonakilty. 

I 2 


' October i8, 1685. Thomas Becher ' chosen to be sovereign 
and refused to serve and was unanimously ordered to be dis- 
franchised and struck off the roll. Col. Richard Townesend 
was unanimously chosen for the year ensuing and immediately 
sworn accordingly, and all his ensigns of authority delivered 
to him.' 

In his life of sixty-seven years he had lived through 
many changes, and if civil war were coming again 
upon that ' most distressful country,' it would be well 
to have a man of experience to head the Protestants 
of the little town. 

Old men still told of the ghastly murder of the 
sovereign of Clonakilty by the rebels of 1641, and a 
new Irish massacre was expected daily by the terrified 
settlers in West Carbery. Only two or three years 
before, the revocation of the Edict of Nantes had filled 
English and Irish towns with fugitives, who wrung 
the hearts of their hearers by their stories of the per- 
secution commanded by the Most Christian King of 
France, the ally and counsellor of the King who now 
reigned in England. No wonder that a hurried exodus 
took place among the Protestants of Ireland ^. Some 
crossed the channel in open boats, others crowded on 
board the ships in Dublin harbour, shrieking that the 
Irish were upon them. 

Among those who left Co. Cork were ^ the Bernards, 
Richard Cox, Joseph Daunt, Percy Freke, Robert and 
Vincent Cooking, Sir Samuel Moore, Edward Riggs, 
George Synge, and Thomas Becher. It is plain why 
the latter had declined to be kept in Clonakilty to 
overlook market dues and regulate tolls. There was 
more congenial work in the North of Ireland, where 

^ See Becher Pedigree Table 5 a. 
^ Leland. ' Bennett's Bandon. 


he soon after is found with many of the other fugi- 
tives, fighting under the banners of WilHam of Orange. 
Bryan Townesend also left the country and placed 
his wife and three little ones in safety and then joined 
the Northern army. 

John Hull, who had followed Colonel Townesend 
as sovereign of Clonakilty, was replaced by a McCarthy ; 
Catholic sheriffs were at the head of every county. 
The Protestant gentry who did not emigrate or join 
the army in the North, drew together into the larger 
country ^ houses, and remained upon their guard with 
loop-holed walls and barricaded windows. At Castle 
Townshend, the Colonel ' girt on his old sword, and 
went to man the wall.' 

Smith, in his history of Co. Cork, gives a graphic 
record of the perils of one member of Colonel Townes- 
end's family, Catherine, who had lately married William, 
son and heir of William Gun of Rattoo, Co. Kerry. 
There is a tradition that she and her husband were 
in some place which was besieged by the enemy, and 
was reduced to surrender. Terms were made, and the 
women were allowed to leave, carrying their valuables, 
but Catherine said that she did not wish to bring 
anything with her but her gun, and this being per- 
mitted, the well-grown young lady appeared, carrying 
her husband, Mr. Gun, on her back. So the story 
runs, and if it is not true it ought to be ! ^ But Smith's 
story is unimpeachable, and runs as follows : — 

' Sir Thomas Southwell with several other gentlemen of 
Co. Cork when the Protestants were disarmed in 1688, being 
unwilling to give up their horses and arms, many of them 
having been robbed and plundered of their stock before, and 

1 Walpole. ^ Smith's History of Co. Cork, 211. 


justly suspecting that, as soon as their arms were gone, neither 
their lives nor the rest of their substance would be safe, 
assembled together with their servants and resolved to march 
to join Lord Kingston at Sligo for their common defence. 
Mr. Gun's spouse accompanied him disguised in man's ap- 
parel in that expedition, when though very young she behaved 
with undaunted courage superior to her sex. In this march 
they were met in the County of Galway by Mr. Power, the 
High Sheriff, attended by a posse, and a party of dragoons, 
to whom they surrendered themselves, being fatigued with 
a long march, upon articles of safety and liberty and indeed 
contrary to the advice of some of their party who were for 
fighting their way '.' 

Another writer^ tells us that it was Catherine Gun 
who earnestly counselled her husband and his com- 
panions to ' fight and die honourably rather than trust 
to the mercy of a perfidious enemy.' 

It was promised that passes should be given them 
and horses in exchange for their own (reserved for 
King James' seryice) to enable them to return home. 

'Notwithstanding,' continues Smith, 'they were robbed 
and made prisoners, and though several of them had plen- 
tiful estates, yet nothing was allowed them to preserve their 
lives, except the charitable contributions of their fellow 
Protestants in different parts of the kingdom. At Galway 
they were brought to trial before Judge Martin, who per- 
suaded them to plead guilty, assuring them of the King's 
mercy, who was then just landed. But the judge soon after 
passing sentence of death on these gentlemen, they with 
much ado and a sum of money procured a reprieve which 
they were forced to renew from time to time. And thus they 
continued in close imprisonment, being removed from jail 
to jail till the general deliverance by His Majesty's victory 

' Smith's History of Kerry, p. 59. 
^ Miss Hiclison, Old Kerry Records. 


at the Boyne, all which time they were not only in a starving 
condition, but once had a summons sent them, whether in 
jest or earnest, to prepare for execution, by the Earl of 
Clanrickard, who came to Galway about the beginning of 
November 1689. His Lordship being a new convert thinking 
it allowable to put a jest upon them as a testimony of his zeal 
against heretics.' 

Catherine Gun and her husband returned in safety 
to Rattoo; there she lived to a very great age (she 
was alive in 1774 when Smith wrote), and died, leaving 
behind her two sons, Francis and Townshend, and 
three daughters, Rebecca, Sarah, and Catherine. 

But to return to the stormy time when Catherine 
Gun started on her adventurous journey. The birth 
to James of a son and heir was the death-blow to the 
hopes of the lovers of liberty, who had gained courage 
to bear the tyranny of his reign by looking forward to 
the changes that would come under his daughter Mary. 
James plunged blindly on in the path of destruction : 
blunder after blunder alienated his most loyal subjects, 
and when, on the 5th of November, 1688, William of 
Orange landed in Torbay not a man raised a hand to 
retain the last Stuart king on his throne. He fled 
to France, where he was received by Louis with the 
warmest hospitality, and some covert contempt : the 
King of England it was felt was rather too pious to be 
successful in the affairs of this world. But twenty-three 
vessels were placed at his disposal, and in the spring of 
1689 he set sail from Brest, the King of France gaily 
assuring him as a farewell that he trusted never to see 
him again. 

James landed at Kinsale on the 12th of March ; the 
peasantry did their best to welcome him, and as laurels 
were not to be had, they made garlands of cabbage 


Stalks in his honour \ He reached Dublin after a 
stately progress, and there busied himself in organising 
the affairs of his little kingdom, coining pewter money, 
placing fellows of his own religion in Trinity College, 
and presiding over a Parliament composed only of 
Romanists, who felt that their turn had come to revenge 
the Cromwellian Conquest. He reproved the French 
envoy, who calmly proposed a general massacre of the 
Protestants; but the Act of Settlement was revoked, and 
two thousand four hundred persons, men and women, 
nobihty, clergy, and yeomen, were proscribed as traitors ^. 
In this tremendous list are found the names of Bryan, 
Kingston, and Francis Townesend; probably John, the 
eldest of the family, was dead, and Horatio, a sailor, was 
not in Ireland. Dean Rowland Davis fled from Cork 
when King James entered it, and from the diary ^ which 
he kept during his wanderings we learn all that we 
know of the Townesend family during that gloomy 
spring. The fugitives in England seem to have born 
their exile with true Irish light-heartedness. 

'April 28, 1690. Went with Mr. Horace Townesend and 
P. Crosbie to the Roebuck in the Haymarket and dined for 
8d ; after dinner we had a famous bout of wrestling between 
Danter, a shoemaker of Ireland, and one Barton, a printer, 
and I won a bottle of wine on the latter's head.' 

Soon after Mr. Horace Townesend had the honour 
of commanding the vessel that conveyed Duke Schom- 
burg to his command in Ireland ; and when they landed 
at Bangor, Co. Down, the aged general presented 
him with his watch. But the war in Ireland dragged 
slowly on ; the soldiers murmured that Schomburg 

' Bennett's Bamlon. ' Green, Shorter History, 672. 

' Published by the Camden Society, edited by Caullield. 


was past his work ; sickness broke out, provisions were 
wanting, and at last William, weary of English factions, 
determined to hand the reins of government in Great 
Britain to his wife, and himself assume the command 
in Ireland. Many of the fugitive gentry flocked to his 
head-quarters at Lisburn. Dean Davis records : — 

' May 21, 1690. I went in the morning to the meeting- 
house at Dunmurray where the regiment met and I preached 
to them on 2 Cor. v. 20. After sermon I went with Captain 
South to his quarters where I met the Lieutenant-Colonel 
just come from Lisburn, and with him Sir Pury Cust and 
Captain Bryan Townshend. We dined there and spent the 

It seems most hkely that Bryan would remain with 
the army till the eventful ist of July, when the victory 
of the Boyne decided the fate of Ireland and the 
Stuarts; but no further mention has been found of the 
Townesend family at the time, though their companion, 
Thomas Becher, was present at the battle, and his 
descendants still preserve the large silver watch which 
King William gave him after the victory. 

It is needless to describe the heroic struggle at the 
Boyne and the pusillanimous conduct of James II who 
fled the field, and how the defeated Irish cried ' change 
kings and we will fight you over again.' After James' 
escape from Kinsale, Fortune's Wheel slowly but surely 
brought the Protestants uppermost, and it was their 
turn to plunder and oppress. When WiUiam had to 
return to England, leaving Ginkle in command, the 
season was growing too late for any extended campaign, 
but Marlborough made a brilliant and successful dash 
at Cork and Kinsale. Dean Davis was back in Cork, 
and says, ' I gave Scravenmore an account of the use- 
fulness of the Cathedral, whereupon Lieut. Townesend 


was sent with men thither, and accordingly did good 

Smith in his history gives a more detailed account of 
the action : — 

'Lieut. -Col. Scravenmore having passed the river and 
being quartered at Gill Abbey, not far from which stood 
the steeple of the Cathedral Church which looked into the 
(enemy's) fort, detached Lieut. Horatio Townshend, who 
getting two files of men to the top of the steeple^ killed the 
Governor of the fort and did considerable execution. To 
remove this party, the Irish traversed two guns against the 
steeple and shook it exceedingly. Whereupon the men 
offered to go down, but the brave Townshend with invin- 
cible courage commanded those below to take away the ladder 
and continued in that post till the fort was surrendered next 

After the taking of Cork and Kinsale the armies went 
into winter quarters, half the country was in the hands 
of the English, while Limerick, Clare, Connaught, and 
Kerry, were occupied by the Irish. Trade revived near 
the towns, but parties of disbanded Jacobite soldiers 
and Irish rapparees burnt and raided along the border 
country even to the walls of Bandon. 

In November, Story tells us ^, — 

' Five hundred Irish under young Colonel Driscoll at- 
tempted to burn Castletown, the mansion house of Colonel 
Townshend in West Carbery. But they missed their aim 
and were so well received by him and his garrison, consisting 
of about 35 men that twelve of them dropt at the first volley, 
and upon a second attack Driscoll, Captain Tieg Donovan, 
Captain Croneen, and about 30 others were slain and so 
many others wounded that they were forced to retire with 
loss and shame. One, Captain Mac-Ronaine, with his drawn 

^ ' Laying boards across the beams for them to stand upon,' according to 
Story, JVars of Ireland, I. 741. 

'' Quoted in Smith's IJisi. Co. Cork, II. 211. 


sword endeavoured to hinder his men's retreat, but he being 
killed they got away ; several of them had bundles of straw 
on their breasts to resist the shot, but notwithstanding 30 
were slain on the spot.' 

Castletown was again attacked by MacFineen O'Dris- 
coll with 400 men, who, having slain five of the gar- 
rison of thirty-nine dragoons, compelled the rest to 
surrender. Colonel Culliford retook the Castle (greatly 
dilapidated by all these sieges), after killing ten and 
capturing ten of the Jacobite garrison. In the grounds 
till lately^ (says Miss Hickson) stood an old sycamore 
known as Diarmed's tree, from a tradition that on it 
Colonel Townesend had hung one of the besiegers. 
A skeleton of a man was actually found when a large 
oak-tree that grew between the house and the sea was 
blown down, but nothing was found to prove if these 
were indeed the remains of Diarmid, or those of some 
other of the many victims of the wars in Munster. 

It was in compensation for this destruction of Castle 
Townshend that government granted ;^4o,ooo to Colonel 

The next year King William offered very^ favourable 
terms to the Irish, but they did not condescend to 
answer proposals which they beheved were dictated 
by his fear and not by his generosity. They learned 
their error too late, when the massacre after Aughrim 
and the surrender of Limerick had left them at the 
feet of the English settlers and the Dublin Parliament. 

A desultory frontier warfare had been going on in 
Carbery all the year 1691. In January ^ Lieutenant 
Arthur Bernard, with twenty of the East Carbery 
Horse and eighteen Bandon Militia, advanced into the 
enemy's country, drove a hundred and twenty of 

' Old Kerry Records. ' Walpole. ' Bennett's Bandon. 


O'Donovan's Irish regiment off the field, and brought 
in large booty. On the nth of April the Irish as- 
saulted Clonakilty, but were driven off. The next day 
they were more successful at Inniskean, which they 
stormed and burnt to the ground, with the exception 
of one house, in which a detachment of Collier's 
regiment took refuge and held out till relieved from 
Bandon by Governor Cox. In May we hear of Colonel 
Townesend making head against the enemy near his 

' There was now,' says Story, ' a garrison of the militia in 
Castlehaven, one of those forts which the Irish delivered to 
the Spaniards in Queen Elizabeth's time, famous for the sea- 
fight in the Haven between Sir Richard Levison and Don 
Pedro de Zubiaur the Spanish Admiral, when the greatest 
part of the Spaniards were sunk or disabled. From hence 
Colonel Townsend sent a party of his men to scour the 
country; they met with a party of rapparees and killed 
one Regan their captain with Borg his lieutenant, and four 

In the following month Inniskean, which had been 
reheved, was garrisoned by a force of the Bandon 
Militia, a detachment of which, under 'the brave 
Townsend,' marched into the country around Bantry, 
where they did great execution, killing a hundred 
rapparees and bringing off large plunder. But even 
this did not discourage the enemy : in July they 
attacked Skibbereen, but here also they were routed 
by the miUtia under Colonel Becher. He also re- 
captured a Dutch ship from the Irish in Bantry Bay, 
when, besides those killed in the struggle, thirty of 
the enemy who leapt overboard were drowned before 
they could reach the shore. 

At the battle of Aughrim (July 12, 1691) the Earl of 


Meath's regiment was engaged and had five officers 
wounded. There was a Captain Townsend serving 
in this regiment shortly after, who may have been 
present on that fatal day for the Jacobite cause 
when the gallant St. Ruth fell. This Captain Towns- 
end may have been either Bryan or Francis. We 
hear of him from Story, who says (Feb. 28, 1692), 

'Captain Townsend of the Earl of Meath's regiment took 
eight or ten Frenchmen prisoners who had come ashore from 
a privateer in Castlehaven.' 

This year, 1691, saw the winding up of the struggle 
in Ireland, when Limerick surrendered and twenty 
thousand Irishmen went over-seas to serve the King 
of France. 

The romantic story of Horace Townesend wooing 
and wedding Colonel Becher's beautiful daughter will 
be found later on. 

In 1792 Bryan Townesend was sovereign of Clona- 
kilty, and Colonel Richard Townesend died, aged 
seventy-four. His wilF was signed on June 24th 
' being sick in body but in perfect sense and disposing 
memory.' He was buried in the old graveyard at 
Castlehaven; his tomb is still marked in the chancel 
of the ruined church, by a slab bearing the words 
' This is the burial-place of the Townshends,' and the 
arms of the family. 

A peaceful resting-place it looks, lulled by the 
ripples breaking on the strand of Castlehaven; in- 
voluntarily the words rise to one's mind ' So Thou 
bringest them to the haven where they would be.' 

If any calm settled down over Ireland after Aughrim, 
it was for the Irish ' a calm of despair.' They were 

' See Appendix to this Chapter. 


brought very low. Dean Swift said they were only 
allowed to survive as hewers of wood and drawers 
of water. Their best and bravest were driven from 
the country, and carried their swords and talents 
into foreign service. Colonel Townesend's grandson, 
young James Coppinger, lost his estates of Lissapole 
and Rincolinsky, and his descendants had to settle far 
off in Britanny ^. The Irish who remained were ground 
down by penal laws of such ferocity that they often 
defeated themselves. The gentry, it is said, frequently 
refused to recognise the Roman Catholic priests who 
passed them in disguise, and Colonel Townesend's 
successor Bryan aided many of his neighbours to save 
their lands from confiscation. 

It is pleasant among the stories of intolerance and 
oppression, which make Irish history such grievous 
reading, to remember Samuel Townshend of White- 
hall, the High Sheriff, who induced the parish priest 
and the protestant rector to combine with him to 
preserve the peace and safety of Aughadown amid 
the terrors of 1798, how Horace Townsend of Derry, 
' the friend of the poor,' did the same for the neighbour- 
hood of Clonakilty, how Samuel Townsend of Fir- 
mount was said to be ^ ' the favourite arbitrator of his 
poorer neighbours,' and to recollect the ten thousand 
pounds arrears which Maurice Fitzgerald Stephens 
Townshend remitted to his tenants. Fuller accounts 
of these descendants of Colonel Townesend will be 
found in the succeeding chapters. 

No relics of Colonel Townesend survive unless it 
be his letter from Pendennis Castle ^, his signature in 

• See Notes on Dorothea Townshend, Chap. viii. 

^ Siatist. Survey^ Co. Cork. 

' Tanner MSS., Bodleian Library, Oxford. 


the Council Book at Clonakilty and appended to 
various deeds and leases, and the Royal Pardons and 
Grants to him which are preserved among the deeds 
of Castle Townshend. 

Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend has seen a ring that 
was formerly preserved at Castle Townshend, and was 
believed to have belonged to the founder of the 
family. It bore the arms of Townshend of Norfolk, 
azure a chevron ermine between three escallops argent, 
but being neither quartered nor impaled, they gave 
little real information. 

The fires which have destroyed the successive man- 
sions at Castle Townshend must have also destroyed 
many relics and papers, so it is difficult to find other 
evidence of the origin of the family than tradition. 
But unfaihng tradition does represent Colonel Richard 
Townesend as descended from Roger Townshend of 
Raynham, Norfolk. He named his son Horatio, a 
name derived from the Fighting Veres, and borne by 
his contemporary the first Baron Townshend ^- Bryan 
also bore a name that may have been derived from 
the same source. Bryan Fairfax was a well-known 
antiquary and writer, and as General Fairfax and Sir 
Roger Townshend married the Vere sisters, the name 
may have come into the family at that time. But it 
is not an unusual name, and a good authority, John 
Sealy Townshend, Master in Chancery, said it was 
derived from Bryan, Chief Justice of Common Pleas 
in England in 1484, of which Court a Sir Roger 
Townshend was also a Judge. John was also a family 
name among the Townshends of Norfolk. 

But at present no Richard Townshend, born in 
1618 or 1619, has been found in the pedigrees of the 

'■ Viscount Rainham. 


Norfolk family or among their relatives in Salop or 

Richard Townesend, son of John Townesend of 
Dichford, Co. Warwick (pleb.), matriculated at Hart 
Hall, Oxford, in 1637, aged 19. He is the only Richard 
Townesend of the right age who has been met with 
as yet. 

There were burgesses of Warwick named Towns- 
end, one of whom, Richard the son of John, matricu- 
lated at Oxford in 1601, and had a son John. 

The name Richard occurs among the Townshends 
of Northampton, who founded one of the American 
branches of the family. Walter Townsend of Hinton, 
Co. Northampton, mentions his son Richard in a will 
dated 1630. 

Several Richard Townshends emigrated to America 
from Gloucestershire in the seventeenth century, but 
they claimed no connection with the Townshends of 
Raynham. A Richard Townshend married Frances 
Gason at Brackinashe in Norfolk in 1618, and it is of 
course not impossible that he may have been the father 
of the subject of this memoir. It is not yet proved 
what connection this Richard Townshend had with the 
Townshends of Brackinashe, but if he belonged to 
their family he would through them be closely con- 
nected with the D'Oyleys. Thomas Townshend of 
Brackinashe married Anne D'Oyley of Shottisham, 
and his first cousin Dorothea Townshend of Testerton 
married Henry D'Oyley. 

Among the wills of the Townshends of Devonshire 
are those of Richard, Samuel, and Dorothy, but no 
connection has yet been traced between this family 
and that in Co. Cork. 

At one time there was an idea current in the family. 


which found its way into one of the eariier editions 
of Burke's Landed Gentry, that Colonel Townesend 
had nine brothers instead of nine sons. John Sealy 
Townshend disposes of this theory in a letter dated 
March 9th, 1846. He says — 

' My uncle John ', now in his 82nd year (whose father was 
born in 1733 or so, and did not die till 181 7, and was emi- 
nently versed — as my uncle John still is — in all that relates 
to the pedigree from Colonel Richard down), affirms that 
Cornelius and Francis were sons of Colonel Richard, and 
his affirmation concurs with Colonel Richard's will (which 
one would think ought to be deemed decisive). But I have 
in my power the infallible evidence of Chancery pleadings 
and Registered deeds. To detail these here would occupy 
more time and space than I can just now command, but I 
will give you chapter and verse under the hands and seals 
of Bryan and his son Richard and brother Philip.' 

George Digby Daunt says — 

' It appears very unlikely that the Colonel could have in- 
duced all his brothers, if he had any, to come to Ireland and 
settle there on his being ordered for active service, except 
it can be proved that his grandfather was the first settler.' 

It has always been believed that Colonel Townes- 
end's wife was Hildegardis Hyde, a near kinswoman 
of the great Lord Clarendon, and therefore of Queen 
Mary and Queen Anne. If the belief is correct, 
this connection may explain the safety of Colonel 
Townesend's life and lands through so many perilous 
times; and some relations of the Hydes did become 
enriched by forfeited lands. Thomas Keightly, Lord 
Justice, married Lord Clarendon's youngest daughter 
and was given grants of land from the forfeitures of 
1688 as a portion for his daughter, Lady Katherine 

' Master-in Chancery. See. ch, xi. 


Keightly, 'who was a dependant on her late Majesty 
Queen Mary'.' 

Colonel Townesend seems also to have had a wife 
named Mary: more than one deed exists signed by 
Colonel Townesend and ' Mary his wife.' Some sug- 
gest that Hildegardis was too peculiar a name to be 
used in a Puritan family, and that she was therefore 
usually called Mary, both as being a common name 
and also that of her probable grandmother, Mary 
Langford, who married Henry Hyde of Purton. But 
John Sealy Townshend believes that Colonel Townes- 
end really married a second time, Mary O'Brien. 
Lord Clarendon married Catherine O'Brien, daughter 
of Henry seventh Earl of Thomond ; and her youngest 
brother Henry Horatio, Lord Ibraken, was a con- 
temporary of Colonel Townesend's son Horatio, and 
served with him under Marlborough. An excellent 
genealogist, the late Mr. Denis O'Callaghan Fisher, 
thought it was clear that Colonel Townesend married 
twice, ist, because family tradition makes all the pre- 
sent Townshends of Co. Cork descend from a lady 
named Hildegardis Hyde ; 2nd, that Colonel Townes- 
end was unquestionably at one period of his life mar- 
ried to a lady named Mary, whose surname had pos- 
sibly been Kingston, as one of Colonel Townesend's 
younger sons was named Kingston, and others Philip 
and Cornelius, which are not Townshend family names. 

A family named Kingston was settled near Bandon. 
Colonel Samuel Kingston, of Skeaf in East Carbery, 
died 1703, leaving a son James, who was admitted 
freeman of Clonakilty, 1710, John Townesend being 
sovereign; and in 1708 Bryan Townesend granted 
Garrendruig for 980 years to James Kingston on such 

' Rep. Com. in Pub. Rec. v. 3. p. 40. 


very favourable terms as to make it probable that it 
was some sort of family affair ^ John, Baron Kings- 
ton, may have been a friend of Colonel Townesend 
and given his name to his son, as his regiment went 
to Ireland in 1647, at the same time as Colonel Townes- 
end's, and Colonel Townesend purchased some Car- 
bery land from him. 

The members of the Townshend family have always 
shown their independence of character in the variety 
of ways they have spelt and still spell their name. 

It seems at first to have been in Norfolk 'Atte 
Town's end,' and during the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries it was spelt in as many as twelve different 
ways — Townsend, Tounneyshende, Towneshende, &c. 
About 1500 it was most usually spelt Townsend, but 
in 1580 the chief family at Raynham resumed the use 
of the h. 

The first members of the family in Ireland spelt 
their name Townesend, then Townsend became most 
common; but a few records have been found of all 
dates which use the h. The commission of Samuel 
Irwin, son of General Sam. Townsend, as ensign in 
the ist Regiment of Footguards, is made out to S. I. 
Townsend, but four years later, in 1799, his Lieutenant's 
Commission spells the name Townshend; and in the 
year 1870 the head of the Irish branch, the Rev. 
Maurice Fitzgerald Stephens Townshend, after con- 
sulting with the Marquess Townshend as head of the 
family, induced the greater part of the Irish Towns- 
hends to spell their name uniformly with an h. 

As no descendants of Colonel Townesend's younger 
sons exist, it is probable that no one cared to preserve 
the name of their mother, while Bryan's descendants 

' Note by Cecil C. Woods, Esq., 1889. 
K 2 


have been proud to remember their ancestress Hilde- 
gardis Hyde. 

Colonel Richard Townesend had the following chil- 
dren : — 

John. Died before his father. His descendants in the 
female line are represented by Townshend of Skir- 
tagh, which see. 

Bryan. Ancestor of all the present family of Townshend 
in Ireland. 

Francis. Represented by the families of Stewart and 

Horatio. Represented by the families of Daunt and 

Kingston. Died unmarried in Barbadoes. He is men- 
tioned in his father's will and was proscribed as a 
traitor by James H. 

Philip. Represented by Sir Henry Becher. 

William, b. 1665. Died unmarried. His will was proved 
1711 ; it is sealed with the Townshend crest and be- 
queathed all he had to his nephew 'John Fitz-Bryan.' 

Cornelius. Represented in the female line in the branches 
of Townshend of Derry and Donoughmore, which see. 
Also by Orpen of Ardtully, Kerry. 

Edward. Probably died comparatively young, as he is 
not mentioned in Colonel Townesend's will ; but in a 
schedule laid before the Court of Claims, 1665, he is 
mentioned as in possession of Keamore. He was 
quarter-master of militia in 1666. He may have been 
only a kinsman to the family at Castle Townshend. 

Hildigardis. Died young. 

Mary. Said by Mrs. E. Synge Townshend to have mar- 
ried an Irish chieftain named O' Regan, by others to 
have married McCartie Reagh or Dr. H. Jones, Bishop 
of Meath. (Mrs. Mary McCartie Reagh received a 
pension of £100, Com. Journ. 1710.) 


Catherine. Married William Gun of Rattoo, Co. Kerry, 
and left descendants. 

A Daughter. Married John Owen. See note on Chap. 

Dorothea. Married Domenic Copinger and left descen- 
dants. See note on Chap. VIII. 

The history of the descendants of Bryan Townshend 
will be first given as being head of the family, then 
that of Colonel Richard's and of Bryan's younger 



Will of Colonel Richard Townesend, dated June 24, 
1692. Extracted from the Prerogative Court of 


' In the name of God. Amen. I Richard Townesend of 
Castle Townesend in the County of Cork, Esqr. being sick 
in body but in perfect sense and disposing memory, for 
which God be thanked, do make this my last will and testa- 
ment in manner following. Viz. I give and bequeath my 
soul to God that gave it, hoping in a glorious resurrection 
through the merits of my Saviour. My body to the ground, 
to be decently buried in the Church of Castlehaven by my 
executors hereafter named. Item, I give and bequeath unto 
my grandson Richard Fitzjohn Townesend the house and 
lands of Bridgetown and my whole freehold in Coronea the 
house and lands of Curromteige and Lorrogo with the mills 
and salmon fishing, the . . . and lands of Skeaf North Morea- 
hine, Stuckeen, Gorrilomore, Dyrinedangan, Dromig, Lahir- 
tidally, Lisanuhig, Drishanemore and fishing. My part of 
Cappaghmore, the . . . and lands Redcaum Bargorum and 
Cooldoragh and Glaun Ikillean to him my said grandson 
during his natural life, and after his decease to the heirs 
male of his body lawfully begotten, and for want of such 
issue to my son Bryan Townesend and his heirs male, and 
for want of such the remainder to my son Francis and his 
heirs male, and for want of such to my son Horatio and his 
heirs male, and for want of such to my son Philip and his 
heirs male, and for want of such issue to my son William 
and his heirs male, and for want of such to my grandson 
John Fitzcornelius and his heirs male &c., and for want of 


such to the heirs general. The said estates to be neverthe- 
less subject to the payment of £500, within five years after 
the date hereof by equal portions yearly to be paid to my 
granddaughter Susanna Townesend as well to be a marriage 
portion as in satisfaction of a debt due from me unto her, 
and whereas I have settled several lands on my son Bryan 
Townesend on his marriage if therefore my above named 
grandson Richard Fitzjohn shall sue implead or disturb my 
said son Bryan or his heirs by reason of any pretence of 
former gift grant or otherwise of any part of the whole of 
the lands settled as aforesaid and thereby dispossess him or 
them, it is my will that from the time of dispossession he or 
they enjoy the before bequeathed lands. I give the profits 
and issues of them to my executors the better to enable them 
to pay my debts and particularly those for which my sons 
are bound, and after satisfaction made of my debts it is my 
will that my son Philip and his heirs shall have them, and 
failing such the remainder to my son Bryan and his heirs 
and for want of such to my son Francis and so to descend 
as aforesaid. 

' I appoint my sons Bryan and Philip my executors of this 
my last will and testament revoking all former wills and 
testaments, and I do hereby give my said executors to en- 
able them with what before I have given to pay my debts 
and funeral charges, all my goods and chattels of what kind 
soever of which the lease made by Thomas Becher, Esq. of 
the Fairs and Markets of Skibbereen is a part. In witness 
whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal this 24th 

June, 1692. 

Richard Townesend. 

Being present 

Richard Townsend Fitzjohn.' 



The following list of lands belonging to Colonel Townes- 
end was made by John Sealy Townshend. 

The lands named in Colonel Townesend's patents of 1668 
are : 

1. Ardglasse in Barony of Carberry, parish Kilcoe. 

2. Ardgehan in Barony of Carberry. 

3. Bargorum in Barony of Carberry. 

4. Ballycahan in Barony of Carberry. 

5. Bawnishal in Barony of Carberry, parish of Fanelobish. 

6. Cooledurrogh in Barony of Carberry. 

7. Dunbeacon. 

8. Derryfunstone. 

9. Enan alias Eoan. 

ID. Garrantonyreghy, Parish of Fanelobish (recovered by 
Jeremy Cartie under the Commission of Grace, 1684). 

11. Gortbrack. 

12. Killaderry (part of Glanteige). 

13. Killcaughy. 

14. Murrahine North. 

15. Ratooth townland in Barony of Ratooth, Co. Meath. 

16. Sleughteige, Barony Carbery. 

17. Stackeen or Sprickeene. 

In patent of 1666 are : 

Ardgehan in Barony of Carberry. 




18. Carribegg. 

19. Cluonleaugh. 

20. Castle Ire. 

21. Curramac Teige. 

22. Cloughvolly. 

23. Coroone alias Coronea, ' called by the name of Skube- 



24. Clonbanine in Barony Duhallow. 

25. Drishane beg in Barony Carbery. 

26. Dromig. 

27. Derrindangan. 

28. Drishane more. 
Enane alias Inane. 

29. Fornaught. 

30. Glanteige (part of Glanteige was granted John Eyres, 

Esqre. the owner, 246 acres, and in Sleughteige 9 
acres, also land in Galway). 

31. Gortagolane. 

32. Glounboage alias Clonbooge. 

33. Island in Barony of Duhallow (in the Commons Journal 

called islands of Clonbairene, 401 acres, arrears of 
quit-rent were due for the years 1693-4-5, when Col. 
Richard and Richard Fitz-John were living). 

34. Keamore (sold to Jeremy Donovan 1679, bought back by 

John Sealy Townshend, Master in Chancery). 

35. Listurcane. 

36. Lahir teedally. 

37. Lissinugg. 

38. Lurigo. 

39. Loghcrott. 

40. Rathnapoole. 

Sleighteige (save Farrindoligin, Farrinda, and Drisha- 


41. Skeagh. 

By a registered deed of July 21, 1772, made between Bryan, 
his son Richard, and Philip Townsend, Col. Townesend also 
had the following lands which are in the copy of the patent 
in possession of T. Downes, Esq., of Skibbereen. 

43. Fillenderry in Carbery. 

44. Lisseenapin. 

45. Ballycronane. 

46. Coronea-gneeve. 

47. Lissnaneane. 


48. Cappamore. 

49. Banelahan. 

50. Cross Teas. 

51. Yeokane. 

52. Barnagordan. 

53. Cahirsna. 

54. Ardra. 

55. Farangulla. 

56. West Blood. 

57. Laherdene. 

58. Milane. 

And from the Archbishop of DubHn. 

59. Aghills. 

60. Killcoe. 

61. Myross. 

62. Part of Drishane. 

63. Part of Farrenda. 

By the account of the collector of quit-rents the district of 
Baltimore, 1695, it seems Col. Townesend was also seized or 
possessed of: 

66. Kinroshanra. 

67. Carron. 

68. Knockroone. 

And John, probably his son, was seized of Drumalighy. 

This property was in a large part purchased upon the re- 
storation, and even after his first patents were granted. 

It appears from a deed registered July 21, 1722, made be- 
tween Colonel Townesend's son Bryan and his son Richard 
and the Rev. Philip Townsend that Colonel Townesend 
leased land from the Archbishop of Dublin (Michael Boyle), 
and the fairs and markets of Skibbereen from Colonel 
Thomas Becher '. 

' Probably Colonel Townesend only was granted the fairs and markets 
of Bridgetown, his part of Skibbereen, and so leased the right to the rest of 
the town from Colonel Becher. 


By the same deed it appears that on Nov. 16, 1682, Colonel 
Townsend borrowed £400 from the Right Hon. Richard 
Earl of Cork, the Right Hon. George late Viscount Lanes- 
borough, and the Right Hon. Lady Countess Dowager of 
Orrery, to whom, on that date, he mortgaged the lands of 
Corran Teige, Cooldonagh, Stuckeen, and Castle Ire, and 
he borrowed another £400 from Arthur Pomeroy, late Dean 
of Cork, and on June 1683 mortgaged to him Drishane-more. 
He incurred many other debts, no doubt in purchasing land 
in which his sons are joined as securities. See his last will 
and testament. 

Extracts from patent of Skibbereen Manor, alias 
Bridgetown, alias Coronea, granted to Colonel 
Richard Townesend. 

(From a copy in possession of T. Downes, Esq.) 

' Charles the Second by the grace of God, &c., cfec, whereas 
our trusty and welbeloved subject Richard Townesend, Esq. 
hath humbly represented unto us, that he is now in posses- 
sion of ye undernamed Townlands, tenements and heredits, 
in his own right, as his lawful inheritance, viz. ye towns and 
lands of Bridgetown als Coronea licke, Drishanemore, Rhy- 
necormac, Lahirdane, Ardagohane, Ballycahir ats Ballicu- 
chane, Gurtbrack, Enane, Castletown, and ye four plough- 
lands of Slughteige, Magragh, Tornagh, with the appur- 
tenances, Garrybegg, Letterhinglass, Morromisholanane, 
Ranypole, Killaderry, Berneteownen, Blood and Ballyne- 
gallop, ye two ploughlands of Knocknaheely, Rahine, Bally- 
crohane, Ardra, BarryshuU, Cahirgall, Castleire, Clonecah, 
als Clonedcahill, Listercaw, Shickeen, Cooledurah, Glanboige, 
Glankilleen, Ardglaw, Curragh meteige, with the appurten- 
ances, Dereendangan, Drishanbegg, Lurgo als Lurigo, 
Smorane, Lissimihig, Lahertadally, Drummig, Cloghwoly, 
Gurtogowlane, Skeagh, Bargormane, Cahirsnagh, Meolune, 
Favingilly, Mihill, Scobaned, Downey, Dunbeacon, Derry- 
finistan, and Caherlikenny, containing in all 8000 acres 
or thereabouts, lying in the barony of Carbery . . . hath 


humbly prayed us in consideration of his loyalty and for 
the better improvement and settlement of his said estate to 
make ye said towns and lands into one entire manor to be 
knowne and called by ye name of ye manor of Bridgetown 
als Coronea . . . with ye advice and consent of our right 
trusty and right welbeloved cousin Arthur Earl of Essex our 
Lieutenant general and general governor of our kingdom of 
Ireland . . . also the lands Knocknagowna, Ballyroe, Yookane, 
Ryne de cassane.' 

This patent gives permission to hold Court leats and baron 
and Frankplege and build a prison and have pounds, stocks 
and duckingstools and have rights to all quarries, mines and 
minerals and have fisheries fowlings and huntings of what 
game soever, and to enclose so many acres as they think fit, 
not exceeding eight hundred acres, into a park for deer and 
other beast of venery, and also free lycence and power hence- 
forth and forever to have free warren, park, and chace, upon 
the said manor, and also to hold markets every Friday, and 
fairs 3rd of May and 3rd October, and appoint officers for 
the market. 

Ninth day of June, 28th year of our reign (1677). 


Deposition of Colonel Townesend. 

' Colonel Richard Townesend, now resident in Castle 
Haven, English Protestant. At the declaring of Cork for 
the Parliament of England Oct. 16, 1649, a prisoner in the 
said city, being duly sworn, saith : That about three days 
before the declaring of Cork, Captain Robert Myhill came 
to him, to acquaint this Examinant that the Lord Inchiquin 
had ordered Colonel Jefford should be sent to Bandon Bridge 
and Colonel Warden to the Fort of Cork, and this examinant 
to the fort of Kinsale next morning, upon which tidings this 
Examinant with his partners was very much troubled and 
did believe this separation was with intent to have them 


executed speedily. Whereupon Captain Myhill took Ex- 
aminant aside and advised him to endeavour their continuance 
in the place where they were, and he believed it would be 
much to their security, and he thereupon acquainted him 
with an intention of several persons to secure the city and 
port of Cork and Castle of Shandon for the parliament of 
England and the then Lord Lieutenant. Given Feb. 16, 
1654, by Colonel Townsend, aged 36. 

' February 21, 1654. Colonel Richard Townesend further 
deposeth that Captain Joseph Cuff then a Lieutenant to 
Captain William Bryan, the Lord of Inchiquin's son, about 
four o'clock in the morning of that night the City of Cork 
declared for the Commonwealth, he, the said Examinant met 
said Joseph Cuff on the North bridge of Cork and after some 
conference with said Cuff this Examinant and Colonel Gilford 
agreed that said Cuff should go into Carbery where his troop 
lay and bring as many of them as he should engage to Cork 
for the better securing of the town ; and the said Cuff did go 
and bring sixteen troopers well horst the next night after the 
town delivered. 

' And that one Lieutenant George Water was by Examinant 
made acquainted with the design to secure Youghal for the 
Parliament, that he did joyfully consent and brought in four 
... to the place appointed for meeting and the same night 
that Youghal was secured he was (by the treachery of one 
Johnson) taken prisoner with Examinant, Colonel Warden, 
and Colonel Jefford \* 


From Notes by Rev. Aubrey Townshend. 

In October, 1859, T. Tuckey, Esq., of 10 South Mall, Cork, 
was in possession of a deed dated Jan. 1665, making over 
Drummeragh on the part of 'Coll. Richard Townesend 

' Extract from Carte papers in Council Book of Corporation of Cork, Caul- 
field, Guildford, 1876. P. 1155. App. B. 


of Castletowne ' ' to Captain Daniell O'Keiffe, and confirmed 
by Mary Townesend the married wife of the within named 
Richard Townesend, the fifteenth day of October, 1666.' 

Also the following deed : — 

'Whereas by Act of Parliament the soldiers and adven- 
turers have lost one third of their lands let out for services 
and adventure in this his Majesty's kingdom of Ireland, and 
that therefor I have lost one third of my lands of Drum- 
meragh and that for reasons best known to myself I have 
parted with my title to the rest to Captain Daniell O'Kiefe 
the former proprietor and accordingly conveyed my interest 
therein to him, I therefore hereby appoint you Teige O'Kyeffe 
to give him livery of seizin thereof with all convenient speed 
in manner and form usual in such cases and for your doing 
this shall be your sufficient warrant. Dated at Cork this 
second day of June, 1666. 

Richard Townesend. 

Signed and sealed in the presence of us 
Mary Baker, John Murphy.' 

' The house built by Colonel Townesend was known during his lifetime 
as Castletown. The name was gradually altered to Castle Townsend (now 
Castletownshend) to distinguish it from other Castletowns, Castletown 
Bere, Castletown Roche, &c. 



//•'//!■ of Bj-ynn 'rou-nsiiid of Castleto-a-nshcnd. Marriid 1681 

From a Pit tun: at Castlciinvnshoid. 



It is curious that although all the present family of 
Townshend in Ireland are descended from Bryan, and 
have cherished his name so devoutly, as to have almost 
forgotten his far more interesting father, Colonel 
Richard, the place and date of Bryan's birth are un- 
known. His last surviving son, Captain Philip, of 
Deny, used to say that his father was seventy years of 
age at the time his youngest son Horace was born in 
1706. But it is improbable that this tradition is cor- 
rect, as it would place Bryan's birth in 1636, when his 
father was but eighteen years of age. Mr. John Sealy 
Townshend has suggested that Bryan was born at 
Kinsale in 1648, but if he was so he must have been a 
cornet at the age of twelve, which seems improbable. 
He certainly was cornet of Militia in 1660, and afterwards 
commanded the frigate ' Swiftsure.' The events of his 
early years have been told in speaking of his father's 
life. He became a burgess of Clonakilty in 1678 ; his 
name in the Council Book is always spelt Bryan. About 
1681 he married Mary Synge, daughter of the Bishop 
of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross ^ and in 1689 was proclaimed 
a traitor by James IPs Irish Parliament. He took his 
wife and four children to England for safety ^ : and in 

' See notes on this chapter. 

' See T. C. D. MSS., list of protestant fugitives. 


the record which mentions this fact his estates are de- 
scribed as worth i^3oo a year. He was at Schomburg's 
head-quarters shortly before the battle of the Boyne. 

If the very handsome picture at Castletownshend 
which has always borne his name is truly the portrait of 
Bryan, it most probably was painted while he was a naval 
officer, as he wears his own hair and not the voluminous 
wig in which gentlemen on land used to enshroud them- 
selves. The portrait at least gives a fair idea of a 
grandee of Munster, with the stately and half-melancholy 
dignity which some writers compare to that of a Spanish 
Hidalgo, while others complain of the ' insane pride of 
birth and position ' engendered by living amongst a 
conquered people. 

But proud though he might be, Bryan Townsend 
was no tyrannical representative of the ruling race. A 
contemporary writer says the proposals for a Union 
between England and Ireland had been so scornfully 
rejected by the English Government that there was 
' scarcely an Englishman who had been seven years in 
the country and meant to remain there who did not 
become averse to England and something of an Irish- 
man ^.' And although a member of the established 
church and the son-in-law of a bishop, Bryan became 
the chosen friend and protector of his Romanist neigh- 

He succeeded to the bulk of the Castletownshend 
estates on the death of his nephew Richard Fitz-John 
Townsend^. He represented the borough of Clona- 
kilty in Parliament from 1695 to 1699, and when he 
came home from Dublin it was to assist his neighbours 
to evade the Act passed by the very House in which 

'■ Walpole, Hist. Kingdom of Ireland, 349. 
■•^ Vid. Registered deed, dated 1722. 


he had been sitting ! But in truth the penal laws were 
so ferocious that they defeated themselves. No Ro- 
manist might possess arms, or send his child to be 
trained in his own religion, or bury his dead in the holy 
places of his faith, or relieve its priests, or even own 
a horse of more than £^ value ! It is said that some 
low fellow meeting a Romanist gentleman driving a pair 
of valuable horses insolently tendered him i^io as their 
price. The owner got down from his carriage, and 
drawing a pistol shot both animals, and thus disap- 
pointed the greed of the informer. 

The laws made it almost impossible for any but a 
Protestant to hold land, so many of the Carbery 
Romanists, especially the O'Heas and O'Donovans, 
trusting in Bryan's high character for integrity, gave 
their properties entirely into his hands, being obliged 
to do so without any written guarantee ^. At one time 
he had under his care upwards of ;if8o,ooo worth of 
property which he defended at considerable cost to 
himself, and when it was safe to restore it to the real 
owners he did so with all the arrears that had accrued 
while he held it. This fact was ascertained by the 
research of the late John Sealy Townshend. 

Many letters from Bryan to his wife are still in 
existence, written with great tenderness, but none of 
them have been available to copy. He must have been 
a man of strong feelings ^ : there is a tradition that he 
was so grieved by the early death of his son Bryan that 
he said he bequeathed a curse to any of his descendants 
who used the name. It is certainly curious that while 
Richard and Horatio are the cottimonest names in the 
family there have been but two Bryans, of whom one 

' John Sealy Townshend's notes. 
* Judge Fitzhenry Townshend. 



died young and the other, who lived to old age, passed 
a singularly unfortunate life. 

In 1692 Bryan was sovereign of Clonakilty, and again 
in 1693 ; in the entry he is called 'Coll. Bryan Townes- 
end.' That year he and his son John (of Skirtagh) are 
entered as having signed the Protestant Oath, and in 
1696 Bryan with the rest of the Association of Lords and 
Commoners signed the address welcoming William III 
as kingi. In 1710 the last wolf in County Cork was 
killed near Kilcrea Abbey ^, it is beheved by the- hand 
of Bryan Townesend. 

In 1717 Bryan signed the Council book of Clonakilty 
for the last time. His hand is feeble and uncertain, 
probably he had made an effort to be present when his 
two sons Samuel and Philip were sworn in as freemen. 
Judge Townshend says in his later years his under- 
standing seems to have been much impaired by age 
or infirmity, and he gave up the management of his 
affairs to his eldest son Richard, whose affectionate 
letters to his father are still preserved. When he was 
an old man the family moved for a while to a house 
near the shore while the castle was being painted and 
papered. A violent storm came on, and a frigate lying 
at anchor was dashed against the house and actually 
broke the window of the old man's bedroom, from 
which accident he got a severe cold which ended his 
life 3. 

He died in 1726, and is buried in the vault at Castle- 
haven beside his father. The descendants of Bryan 
Townesend kept up a warm family feeling, meeting 
for a yearly dinner of 'The Bryanite Club,' as they 

1 Smith's History of Co. Cork. 

^ Master Brooks told the Rev. Aubrey Townshend this story. 

' John Sealy Townshend, through his daughter Mrs. Ed. Townshend. 


called it, till they grew too many to sit round one 
table. ' Bryan trees ' were made, and the various 
branches of the family were carefully recorded, so that 
its history is well known from his time ; a great contrast 
to the scanty information preserved about his father, 
Colonel Richard. It has been suggested that the Tory 
principles generally adopted by the family caused them 
to neglect the records of their Roundhead ancestor; 
but apart from this, the many accidents that befell 
the house at Castle Townshend quite account for 
few very old family papers being preserved. Bryan 
Townsend's seal, bearing the arms of the Norfolk 
house of Townshend was preserved till lately at Castle 
Townshend, and Miss Townshend of Derry has his 
china teapot. 

There is a tradition that he proved his kinship to 
good Queen Anne by once eating a whole leg of 
mutton, the Hyde family having been always noted 
for their healthy appetites ! There are various Carbery 
sayings that seem to date from Bryan's time, such as 
' Townsends must eat well, drink well, and sleep well, 
if they are to work well ' ; and ' There never was a 
Becher that couldn't ride, a Hungerford that couldn't 
shoot, or a Townshend that hadn't a good head ' ; and 
also 'There never was a Hungerford a rogue nor a 
Townsend a fool.' 

The children of Bryan Townsend and his wife Mary 
were — 

1. Richard of Castle Townshend. 

2. Edward, born Sept. 17, 1685, and died unmarried. 

3. Bryan, born 1686, died unmarried. 

4. John of Skirtagh, born 26 May, 1691. 

5. Samuel of Whitehall, born Sept. 23, 1692. 

6. Francis, born August 12, 1694, died unmarried. 

L 2 


7. William, born April 20, 1699, died unmarried. 

8. Philip of Derry, born August 13, 1700. 

9. Horatio of Donoughmore, born Sept. i, 1706. 

10. Mary, married Dr. John House, or Hough, of Castle 

Townshend, and had a daughter Mary who became 
Mrs. Nisbit. 

11. Katherine, born Jan. 10, 1689-90, died unmarried. 

12. Helena, born Sept. 29, 1695, and married Very Rev. 

W. Meade of Balintober, Dean of Cork, grandson of 
Sir John Meade, and left descendants the Meades of 
Ballymartle and Ballintober. 

13. Barbara, born March 1696-7. Married in 1724 

Thomas Hungerford, of Cahirmore, and left descend- 
ants, the Hungerfords of Cahirmore, near Ross. 

14. There was also a Barbara the eldest child, born 

March 1682-3, who died young. 

In his will, Bryan Townsend says that he had already 
made provision for his younger children, whose portions 
his son Richard had paid or secured, besides having 
paid considerable debts in 1722 ; therefore he leaves 
all his property, real and personal, to his son Richard. 
Probate was granted of this will in 1727. 


The Synges descend from an ancient English line. Ware, 
in his History of Ireland, says their name was originally 
Millington, and was changed to Synge on account of the fine 
voices in the family. 

George Synge was born at Bridgenorth, and educated at 
Balliol College, Oxford. He came to Ireland as a clergy- 
man in the beginning of the reign of Charles the First, and 
was made Bishop of Cloyne 1638. 

He acted as the Duke of Ormonde's agent during his nego- 


tiations with the Munster Army in 1648, and afterwards 
retired to England and died at Bridgenorth 1653. 

His brother Edward, who had accompanied him to Ireland, 
was born at Bridgenorth, and educated at Drogheda and 
Trinity College, Dublin. He became a Doctor of Divinity, 
and held some ecclesiastical preferment in St. Patrick's 
Cathedral and also in Donegal, where he lived after 
Ormonde surrendered Dublin to the Parliament in 1647. 

The English Parliamentary Commissioners proposed to 
the clergy to adopt the Presbyterian Directory of public 
worship instead of the Book of Common Prayer. The re- 
monstrance of the clergy against this proposal was signed 
by Edward Synge, and by his persuasive letters to Dr. 
George, the Auditor-General, he obtained permission to 
use the Prayer-Book in his Donegal retirement up to the 
time of the Restoration. He then became Dean of Elphin, 
and was one of the twelve bishops consecrated at St. 
Patrick's on January 27, 1661, being then made Bishop of 
Limerick. Two years later he was translated to the bishop- 
ric of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross. 

He died Dec. 22, 1678, leaving two sons, Samuel, born 
1656, afterwards Dean of Kildare ; Edward, Archbishop of 
Tuam ; and a daughter Mary, who married Bryan Townsend, 
and is ancestress of all the present family of Townshend in 

Dean Samuel Synge married in 1878 Margaret, daughter of 
the Right Rev. Michael Boyle, Archbishop of Tuam. Their 
daughter Mary was first wife of her cousin Richard Towns- 
hend of Castle Townshend. 


VILLE (ll). 

Richard Townshend, of Castle Townshend, was born 
July 15, 1684, and succeeded to the estates on the 
death of his father Bryan, 1727. 

It was at this period^ that Dean Swift spent some 
time in West Carbery. He stayed at Myros, but is 
said to have written his poem Carberiae Rupes in a 
ruined tower at Castle Townshend, still known as 
Swift's Tower. It is also said that letters from the 
great Dean are still preserved at Castle Tcw^nshend, 
and that he named one of the houses in the village 
Laputa ^- 

In 1706 Richard Townshend married his cousin Mary, 
daughter of the Very Rev. Samuel Synge, Dean of 
Kildare, and had two children, Samuel, who died in 
1725, aged nineteen, and Mary, who in 1746 married 
the Rev. Thomas Daunt of Fahalea. She died of 
smallpox, ' brought in some new dresses from her 
Mantua maker.' When her husband died, he left 
directions that he should be buried in his wedding 

Richard Townshend married secondly Elizabeth, 
only daughter of Henry Becher of Creagh^, setthng 

' G. Digby Daunt. 

^ Now Glen Barrahane, the seat of Sir J. J. Coghill, Bart. 

' See Becher Notes in ch. viii. 

Borti July 15, 1684. Died 1742 


-£"300 a year on her as jointure. He died before his 
eldest son by Elizabeth came of age, and left her sole 
legatee and guardian to all the children. If she should 
die while they were young, his brothers, Samuel, 
Philip and Horatio, were appointed guardians. His 
will was proved Nov. 1742. His wife did not long 
survive him. Her will is dated 1746. It desires land 
to be held in trust to pay annuities for the education 
of her sons Henry and John, and portions for her 
daughters. She left six children : — 

First, Richard, of Castle Townshend. 

Secondly, John, of Shepperton, who married Mary, 
daughter of Jonas Morris Townshend, of Barley Hill, 
and Mary Townsend, of Skirtagh (Table IX). He was 
Commissioner of Excise and member of Parliament 
for Doneraile, 1797, and member for Clonakilty at the 
time of the Union, for which he voted. His portrait 
is at Drishane, a handsome decided-looking man, with 
regular features, heavy eyebrows and piercing eyes. 
His grandson, John Fitz-Henry Townshend, Judge of 
the Admiralty Courts, Dublin, is the oldest judge in 
the British Isles. 

Thirdly, Henry, who was an officer in the Navy, and 
died unmarried, leaving his Irish estates to his nephew 
Richard, son of John of Shepperton. 

Fourthly, Elizabeth, who married Captain Gwyn of 
Gower, Glamorgan, and Upham, Hants. She was a 
great beauty, and her descendant, General Sir Charles 
Shute, M.P., K.C.B., has a crayon portrait of her drawn 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

Fifthly, Helena, who married one of the Herberts 
of Kerry, the Rev. Arthur Herbert, of Cahirnan. He 
was afterwards Rector of Myros, and lived at Myros 
Wood, where he ' erected a very elegant and commo- 


dious house ^,' afterwards bought by Lord Kingston, 
who sold it in a few years time to John Sealy Towns- 
end, Master in Chancery. 

Sixthly, Harriet, who married the Rev. David Free- 
man, rector of Castle Haven. His tombstone is in 
the churchyard of Castle Townshend. He is said to 
have been of the ancient family of Freeman of Castle 

The eldest of this family, Richard, was educated at 
Westminster. He must have been a singularly hand- 
some and attractive man ; for he is said by one family 
chronicler to have been the handsomest and most 
polished gentleman in Ireland, and when he contested 
the county Cork the electioneering nickname he went 
by was ' the Munster Peacock,' from his beauty and 
the slenderness of his long legs. He was admitted 
a freeman of the Corporation of Youghall in July, 
1760, at the same time as his kinsmen, Edward, John, 
Captain Philip, and the Rev. Richard Townsend. 
He much improved the village of Castle Townshend, 
where he erected one of the first bolting mills seen 
in the barony ^, and ' such was the encouragement he 
gave for building, as well as the desire of being near 
a man beloved, admired and respected to a degree 
which only those who knew him can justly appreciate, 
that in a short time a new town arose.' 

Although a little sunshine lit up Castle Townshend, 
these were dark days in Ireland, and there were 
numerous midnight outrages by Whiteboys, while 
absentee landlords, remorseless middlemen, and a 
starving peasantry made even Lord Chesterfield, then 
Lord Lieutenant, say, ' the poor people of Ireland are 

' Statistical Survey, Co. Cork, ii, 338. Townsend. 
' Ibid. 

Married Elizabeth Fi/r.tjci'aid. 1750 

J''}0!>/ a pictuj-c at Drishane 


worse used than negroes by their masters.' The chief 
business of the Lord Lieutenant seemed to be to gain 
a majority in Parhament by any means, and the busi- 
ness of the opposition was to make the best terms 
possible for themselves before they permitted any bills 
to pass. 

Richard Townshend was a staunch Tory, but no bait, 
not even that of a peerage, could induce him to vote 
blindly with his party. When Lord Townshend was 
Viceroy he wrote in 1767 to his ' kinsman of Castle 
Townshend' reproaching him with a difference in politics 
which went ' so far and no further and neither advanced 
himself nor his party.' A later Viceroy, Lord Bucking- 
hamshire, says in a letter dated 1780, 

' I had not contracted any absolute engagements of recom- 
mendations either to peerage or pension till difficulties arose. 
I must have been culpable in neglecting any possible means 
of securing a majority in the House of Commons. Mr. 
Townshend was particularly recommended to me by Lord 
Shannon for a seat in the Privy Council, and I have reason 
to believe his Lordship is extremely anxious for his success.' 

Lord Shannon was son of Henry Boyle, first Earl of 
Shannon, the owner of sixteen Parliamentary seats and 
of vast patronage. He was one of the great powers 
who had to be propitiated before a hapless Viceroy 
could carry on his government. 

By fair means or foul the Oligarchy which headed 
the Protestant gentry could be kept in good temper, 
but those who were too proud to be bribed and too 
strong to be bullied watched with anxiety in the days 
of the Georges how Irish trade was threatened with 
ever fresh disaster and the English settlements beyond 
the Atlantic were being driven to open revolt by similar 


The attacks of pirates on the undefended coasts of 
Ireland had obliged the government to allow the 
nobility and gentry to raise bodies of volunteers for 
their defence, and these armed forces were not inclined 
to sit still in patience while the war ruined the linen 
trade and the export of provisions from Irish ports was 
made illegal in order that the Army in America should 
get its salt beef cheap ! ' Talk not to me of peace,' 
cried Hussey Burgh, 'it is smothered war! England 
has sown her laws like dragons' teeth and they have 
sprung up armed men.' 

There is a story that in 1780 an officer of the Guards 
asked a volunteer in a London coffee-house to what 
corps he belonged. He answered, to one of the Cork 
corps. ' Ah ! ' said the officer, ' you'll soon be dis- 
armed.' ' Pray, sir,' answered the Cork boy, ' were you 
ever in America ? ' 'Yes.' 'And did you find it easy 
to disarm them?' 'No,' answered the officer, 'but it 
will be no difficult matter to settle you.' ' I hope,' 
answered the Irishman with an oath, ' that you will be 
one of those sent over to try the experiment ! ' The 
feehng grew so fierce in Ireland that Lord North was 
obliged to yield and permit the repeal of the trade 
restrictions ; but it was felt that what one English 
Parliament had granted another might take back, and in 
1780 Grattan moved 'that the King with the consent of 
the Lords and Commons of Ireland is the only power 
competent to enact laws to bind Ireland.' The volun- 
teers, headed by Lord Charlemont, Flood, and Grattan, 
determined to secure the full expression of the public 
will in spite of any manipulation of the Houses of 
Parliament, and they passed resolutions in favour of 
legislative independence. These were echoed through- 
out the country. At the Spring Assizes of 1782 the 


Grand Jury of Cork passed the following resolu- 
tion : — 

' Resolved that we think it necessary to declare no power 
has a right to make laws for this kingdom save only the King, 
Lords and Commons of Ireland, and that we will with our 
lives and fortunes maintain and defend the Irish Parliament 
in such a declaration of rights and in any measure they may 
think proper to defend it. 

Richard Townshend, 


Richard Tow^nshend was Colonel of Militia and Com- 
missioner for the Revenue, Member for Co. Cork from 
1759 to 1783, and High Sheriff in 1753. He maintained, 
it is said, ' a princely hospitality at Castle Townshend 
and had a commanding influence in the county ^.' Some 
echoes of those old festivities may be heard in the 
following extracts from the Cork Remembrancer'^. In 
November, 1766, a violent storm from the south-west, 
with thunder, broke over the west of County Cork, and 
on the 28th — 

' His Highness the Prince of Monsereda, on his travels 
through Europe on board the Delight, was by contrary winds 
forced to put into Castle Townsend where he was treated 
with every mark of respect and distinction suitable to his 
dignity and received with the entertainments the place could 

1769. 'A meeting of the Atlantic Society took place at 
Rahine Castle in the harbour of Castlehaven.' 

But under the surface there were still smouldering 
the old fires of discontent and outrage. The next 
extract tells an oft-repeated story: — 

' 1777, Feb. 18. Richard Townsend, John Townsend, 
Samuel Jervoise", and Daniel Callaghan, Magistrates, with 

• Statistic Survey. ^ Tuckey. ' Probably of Braad. 


several gentlemen of the county and their servants well 
mounted, set out at two in the morning to the Mountains 
above Bantry in the neighbourhood of Murdering Glin and 
Glannhannone where they apprehended several persons 
charged with cutting off the ears of a horse.' 

The dwellers in the West had to hold themselves in 
readiness for the visits of less agreeable foreigners than 
the prince of Monsereda. In 1780 we hear that the 
' Count D'Artois,' a French vessel of 74 guns, was 
taken off the harbour of Castle Townshend by Captain 
McBride, commander of H.M.S. ' Bienfaisant,' who was 
afterwards presented with the freedom of Cork city in 
a silver box ^. 

Richard Townshend married in 1752 Elizabeth, only 
daughter and heiress by survival of John FitzGerald, 
15th Knight of Kerry, by whom he had one son and 
one daughter. Elizabeth FitzGerald's only brother 
Maurice, i6th Knight of Kerry, had married his 
cousin Lady Anne Fitzmaurice, and died leaving no 
children, but even now he is remembered as ' the good 
Knight.' He left all the Desmond estates in Kerry to 
the son of his sister Elizabeth Townshend. 

The Knights of Kerry descend from Maurice Fitz- 
Gerald, who accompanied Strongbow in his invasion of 
Ireland. He was son of Nesta, Princess of Wales, and 
ancestor of all the Geraldines of Desmond, of Leinster, 
and the Knights of Kerry, of Glyn and the White 

To give a detailed account of the ancestors of Eliza- 
beth Townshend would be to write the history of 
Ireland— yet as the revival of the Earldoms of Desmond 
and Thomond was offered as a bribe to her son, it may 
be well to note from whence the titles were derived. 

' Cork Council Book, Caulfield. 


Wife of Richard Tomnshend, of CnstktownsliCHd 

Fiom a pKtiitx at Dnshanc 


'Ye Geraldines, ye Geraldines, how royally ye reigned 
O'er Desmond broad, and rich Kildare, and English arts disdained ; 
Your sword made knights, your banner waved, free was your bugle call 
By Glyn's green banks and Dingle's tide, from Barrow banks to YoughaP.' 

The last Earl of Desmond in the male line "was the luck- 
less ' Queen's Earl,' the godson of Queen Elizabeth, -who 
was brought up in the To-wer. The Queen allo-wed 
him to go back to his O'wn people ■when he was grown 
up, but their rapture of welcome only lasted till they 
saw him enter a Protestant church : and he returned to 
England to die young and lonely, a disappointed man. 
James the First granted the Desmond title to the son of 
the Earl of Denbigh, who had no connection whatever 
with it, and the great Geraldine family was represented 
by the sister of the Queen's Earl, Katherine, who 
married the first Viscount Clare, brother to the Earl of 

* Of Desmond's blood, thro' woman's veins, passed on the exhausted tide. 
His title lives, a Saxon churl usurps the lion's hide '.' 

The grand-daughter of the Viscountess, Honora 
O'Brien, transmitted her Geraldine claims to the 
Earldoms of Desmond and Thomond to her descend- 
ants the Knights of Kerry; for the hne of her only 
brother, the gallant leader of ' Clare's Dragoons,' died 
out, exiled in France. In 1674 Honora's son, Maurice 
Fitzgerald, Knight of Kerry, bore his Fitzgerald arms 
supported by the dragon and boar of Desmond. He 
fought on the side of James the Second at the battle 
of the Boyne : if the fortunes of the day had favoured 
the Stuarts it is possible that he might have died Earl 
of Desmond. He claimed a royal descent through his 
grandmother. Lady Katherine Fitzmaurice, a descend- 
ant through the Ormondes from Edward I. He retired 

' Thomas Davis, The Geraldines. 


into priyate life after the Revolution and married (June 
30, 1713) Elizabeth Crosbie of Ardfert, sister of Maurice 
first Lord Brandon and aunt to the first Earl of 
Glandore, and lived at Rahanan Castle near Ventry. 
Elizabeth Crosbie was the first Protestant wife in the 
long line of this branch of Geraldines, who thence- 
forward conformed to the Church of England. Her 
wardrobe of yew, ten feet high, is still in the posses- 
sion of a member of the Geraldine family, James 
O'Connor of Dingle. A wonderful description is extant 
of this Knight of Kerry as High Sheriff receiving the 
Judges, riding on an Arab horse caparisoned in velvet 
and gold, and followed by numberless pages and ser- 
vants and thirty-five members of his own family. Un- 
fortunately for the splendour of the procession the 
Judges' coach stuck fast in the mud, and the banquet 
that followed had to be cut short for fear that the 
rise of the flooded river should prevent their further 
progress. John, the eldest son of Maurice Fitzgerald 
and Elizabeth Crosbie, married Margaret, fifth daughter 
of the Right Hon. Joseph Deane, Lord Chief Baron 
of the Exchequer, and his wife Margaret Boyle, grand- 
daughter of the Earl of Inchiquin and of the Earl of 
Orrery (Lord Broghill). John, Knight of Kerry, and 
Margaret Deane, had one only daughter Elizabeth, 
wife of Colonel Townshend ; she was a very beautiful 
woman with the Fitzgerald blue eyes. Her portrait 
hangs at Castle Townshend, a slight, pale, distinguished- 
looking figure in a fur-trimmed gown. 

The tomb of her father, John Fitzgerald, fifteenth 
Knight of Kerry, was rescued from destruction by a 
kinsman, James O'Connor, and has been restored, in 
1892, by Mrs. Pierrepont Mundy and Mrs. Courteney 
Vernon, great-great-granddaughters of the Knight. 


Richard To^ynshend died December 23, 1783, leaving 
one son, Richard Boyle Townshend, born in 1753. He 
was educated at Eton and Magdalen College, Oxford, 
and after taking his degree, made a trip to Spa in 
company with his father, Mr. St. Leger, afterwards 
Lord Doneraile, and Horace Townsend of Derry. 
The last-named published some recollections of this 
trip many years after in Blackwood's Magazine'^. He 
describes his companions 

' as a respectable and respected friend and relative much 
older than myself, to whom the waters had been ordered by 
his physician ; his son, and a young man, heir to a title and 
what is still better a good estate. The Hon. iVIr. S. was a 
great acquisition, for he had received part of his education in 
France, and was besides a well-tempered and agreeable com- 
panion. Young Mr. T. just left the University for which he 
had been prepared at Eton, and being a youth of polished 
mind and gentle manners, afforded ample assurance both of 
giving and receiving pleasure on such an excursion. His 
father had been conversant with the first ranks of society 
in Ireland, and was besides a man of sound judgment and 
amiable disposition.' 

They certainly anticipated a very pleasant tour, but 
at the very outset it began with an adventure which 
nearly landed them in a French prison, for no sooner 
had they sailed from Waterford bound for Milford 
Haven, than they were chased by a French privateer. 
She gained on them and they gave themselves up for 
lost, when the wind dropped and both vessels were 
becalmed. Hereupon the privateersman got out their 
sweeps and continued the chase. The Irishmen did 
the same, and an exciting race ensued. The captain 
ordered that all who could should help to row, and 
the rest to ser\'e round grog. Horace Townsend, a 

' Blackwood's Magazine, Sept. 1827. 


powerful man over six feet in height, gained great 
credit with the crew for his able assistance at the oars, 
while the other two 'obtained immortal honour by 
their alacrity and adroitness in compounding and hand- 
ing about the grog.' Between the grog and the hard 
rowing they won the race, and favoured by night 
slipped back into Waterford, and two days after crossed 
safely to Hubbister. A week later they were in Ostend, 
and there their Irish servants fell in with some fellow- 
countrymen on the pier. The fellow-countrymen 
proved to be the crew of one Captain Kelly. Of 
course they foregathered. ' By Saint Patrick,' said one, 
'we're all friends here, and we'll have a booze together 
and drink success to Ireland.' 

'With these friends of Ireland,' says Townsend, 
' they repaired to a public house, and in the course 
of conversation we learned that Captain Kelly was 
the master of a smart privateer, which turned out to 
be the very one that we had so narrowly escaped 
from a week before.' Kelly was only a rough sailor, 
but later on at Spa ' we chanced to meet the owner of 
the vessel himself, and he joked with me for robbing 
him of so rich a prize as our ransom by my rowing 
exertions. " However," said he, " I owe you some com- 
pensation for the uneasiness you must all have suf- 
fered, and if you return through France, I will give 
you letters to my friends which you may find of some 
use." ' 

When Richard Townshend died, 1783, his son suc- 
ceeded to a troubled inheritance. He had already 
entered public life, and sat as member for the family 
borough of Dingle from 1781 to 1795. The first event 
in 1783 was the visit of a body of cavalry to Castle 
Townshend 'in quest of some insurgents, said to be 


meditating mischief against the inhabitants of that 
neighbourhood. After scouring the country they ap- 
prehended Denis Connel, ahas Cockabendy, who was 
charged with sounding a horn to assemble a mob ^.' 

That same year the Volunteers attempted to overawe 
the Dublin Parliament which had rejected Flood's Reform 
Bill, and it was only the moderation of Lord Charle- 
mont that prevented the outbreak of civil war ^- Rotten 
boroughs, vice and corruption among the ruling caste, 
Whiteboy outrages and starvation among the peasantry, 
decaying trade and blighted hopes for the middle 
classes — there was only one line for a high-spirited 
young man to take, and the young member for Dingle 
took it, and although he nominally belonged to the 
party of Pitt, he was as independent as his forefathers 
had been from the days of the Long Parliament. 

Pitt was indeed anxious to improve the commercial 
relations between England and Ireland, but the influ- 
ence of English manufacturers was too strong for him, 
and the propositions he laid before the House were 
such that Fox declared they entailed slavery on Ireland, 
and Dublin received them with a shout of indignation. 
Nothing daunted by this failure, the idea of the Union 
as the best means of checking Irish trade competition 
was still urged, but the more support the measure 
received in England, the wilder was the storm it 
aroused across the Channel. Not even the offer of 
an English peerage could bribe Richard Boyle Towns- 
hend to vote for such a Union. Long afterwards, Sir 
Robert Peel, when Chief Secretary, complained of the 
difficulty of conciliating Tories who were so powerful 
and so independent as the Townshend family. So 
Mr. Townshend lost the favour of his party and also 

* Tuckey's Cork Renienibrancer. ^ Walpole's Hist, of Ireland, 408. 



his borough of Dingle, which was disfranchised. The 
Government could not avoid compensating him for a 
loss which was an important gain to them, and he 
received ;£'i5oo. 

A new complication arose in England when King 
George's mental health failed and the question of a 
Regency was raised. Grattan had made a treaty with 
Fox, the ally of the Prince of Wales, who engaged if 
the Whigs came in to pass a bill to put a stop to the 
corruption of the Irish Parliament. Accordingly the 
Irish opposition actually determined to forestall the 
English Parliament in the choice of a Regent, and 
voted an address to the Prince. Mr. Townshend again 
displeased his party, and supported the right of Ireland 
to choose her own ruler. 

To the confusion of the opposition, the King re- 
covered, and the English Government determined that 
those who had combined against its authority should 
be crushed. 

From this time matters grew steadily worse, the 
hopes raised by Grattan were frustrated, those by 
Fitz-William disavowed. There is nothing to tempt 
one to linger over public history. 

In 1785 Richard Boyle Townshend was High Sherifif 
for County Cork, and stood for its seat in Parliament,, 
but was defeated after a hard struggle. The previous 
3'ear, May 16, 1784, he had married Henrietta Newen- 
ham of Maryborough, sister of Mrs. White of Glen- 
gariflf^ Both these ladies were extremely beautiful : 
there is a spirited portrait of Mrs. Townshend at. Castle 
Townsend which gives a vivid idea of her large grey 
eyes, dazzling complexion, and masses of brown curls. 

' Their mother was Henrietta Vereker of Roxborough, Co. Limerick of 
the family represented by Viscount Gort. 


She wears a white cloth riding-habit faced with blue 
velvet, for though small and slight, a ' pocket Venus ' 
in fact, she was a great horsewoman, and celebrated 
in Wiltshire hunting society for her daring riding. In 
1785 their eldest son Richard Fitz-Gerald was born ; 
and the next event that marks the course of life in Car- 
bery was the alarm of a French invasion in 1796, when 
Mr. Townshend went to great expense to fortify Castle- 
haven against the enemy, and equipped a flotilla at his 
own expense; but the foggy weather veiled the harbour 
entrance and the French fleet passed on to Ban try, 
where the story goes no messenger could be trusted 
to carry the news to Cork, and Mrs. White herself 
rode on the errand, and a kinsman of Mr. Townshend's 
sailed with the despatches to England^. Then came 
the rebellion of 1791, the story of which is more fully 
told in the records of the Whitehall and Derry Houses ^ ; 
and in 1800 the Irish Parliament met for the last time. 
It is needless to repeat the tale of corruption and 
disgrace which heralded the Union, but it is satis- 
factory to remember that Richard Boyle Townshend 
was one of the hundred members of the Lower House 
whom the Government were unable to bribe or coerce. 
A picture of the sitting of the last Irish House of 
Commons was painted by Hayter and Barraud, but 
the portrait in it of Richard Boyle Townshend was 
not considered to be a successful likeness. When the 
Government majority for the Union was known and 
the House adjourned, the Speaker walked out followed 
by forty-one members. The populace outside un- 
covered, and in deep silence accompanied them to the 
Speaker's house in Molesworth Street. On reaching 
it the Speaker turned round, bowed to the crowd, 

' See chapter ix. ' See chapters x and xi. 

M 2 


entered his housej and the whole assemblage dispersed 
without uttering a word^- All was over. 

Five sons and two daughters were born to Richard 
Boyle Townshend, but a heavy blow fell on him in 
1805 when his eldest son died at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he was entered as a fellow-commoner, and 
claimed the privileges of founder's kin for his royal 
descent through the Fitzmaurice line. Although he 
died in England his mother began to fear that Castle 
Townshend was not healthy and that the rooms were 
not high enough, so it was decided to raise them by 
lowering the floors. Unfortunately the lowering was 
done only too thoroughly, the foundations were shaken, 
and the great house, with its thirteen best bedrooms, 
was a ruin. 

The family never lived much in Ireland again ; the 
agent's house, which was converted into a residence 
for them, did not feel like home — they had a house 
in Montague Square, London, No. 8, and a hunting 
residence in Wiltshire, near their relative Lord Lans- 
downe at Bowood, and also at Hurdcott in Dorset 
when the younger sons were preparing for West- 
minster at Sherborne. Those who remember Richard 
Boyle Townshend when visiting his Irish home in 
1826 describe his snow-white hair and deep sapphire 
eyes and delicate-featured face, and say how no one 
could resist the charm of his perfect manners of the 
old courtly school. He was a good classical scholar 
and also a sportsman ; his memory was so retentive 
that he could quote Horace freely; he could also name 
every winner of the Derby without a pause. He kept 
a pack of harriers at the Barn, as the present home 
farm was then called. He died in Dublin in 1827. 

' Walpole, Htst. of Ireland, 527. 


He left four sons and two daughters. The eldest 
surviving son, John Townshend, who succeeded to 
the property, was, at the death of his father. Major in 
the 14th Light Dragoons. It is said that some of the 
exploits of Lever's Charles O'Malley in the Peninsula 
are taken from those of Major Townshend and his 
friends. His beautiful sister, Eliza, used to carve the 
victories of her brother's regiment on the old laurel- 
trees that grow round Bryan's fort. 

John Townshend embarked on board the transport 
' Benjamin and Mary ' in December, 1808, as Lieu- 
tenant in the 14th Light Dragoons, in which regiment 
he remained more than forty years. His letters home 
were preserved with the greatest care by his mother, 
together with the contemporary newspapers and ga- 
zettes. John's letters are generally short and to the 
point, touching very lightly on the gallant actions that 
he performed, chiefly urging that all steps should be 
taken to aid his promotion, and asking for the Wa- 
verley Novels, and saying what clothes and remounts 
he required. He often called his father 'the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Bryanites.' More details are 
given in the merry letters written by his younger 
brothers Maurice and Boyle, who visited him in 1810 
with their school and college friend the Marquis of 
Worcester (afterwards seventh Duke of Beaufort). 

John Townshend to his Mother. 
My dearest Mother, Belem, Jan. i, 1809. 

. . . Our first division marches on Saturday for the 
frontier but what we are to do no one knows. Sir D. Baird 
has joined General Moore but whether they have had any 
engagements we can't tell, for all our news comes from 
England. We live here excessively well — our breakfast 


which is coffee and eggs for about 45- pence and dinner for 
about 2s. 7^rf. and wine into the bargain. Tell Eliza I have 
seen but three parrots and four monkeys and they belong to 
the Prince of the Brazils but she shall have one if I can get 
one. The French have not left a single vestige of anything 
in the country that is valuable. Skibbereen of a wet day is 
a drawingroom in point of cleanliness to Lisbon. 

John Townsend to his Father. 

Belem, March 3, 1809. 

The news here is very bad indeed, from what we under- 
stand our troops suffered uncommonly at the battle of 
Corunna and that many more were lost than is accounted for 
in the papers. We had the Brest fleet off the bar the day 
before yesterday consisting of sixteen sail of the line and 
some Frigates and yesterday Sir J. Duckworth with 12 sail 
of the line took . . . from this river and went in pursuit of 
them and no doubt he will give a good account of them if 
he overtakes them. The army here march tomorrow for 
Bucellas and Torres Vedras where they are to take up a 
position that is remarkably strong in order to be in readi- 
ness for the French if they should come here again. 

Your ever affectionate and dutiful son 

John Townsend. 

My dearest Father, Braga, il/oy 25, 1809. 

I take the first opportunity of writing to you well knowing 
how anxious you must be concerning the ragged 14th after 
having read Sir Arthur Wellesley's dispatches concerning 
our giving the enemy a good drubbing. 

We (the cavalry) met the enemy on the morning of the loth 
about four o'clock and we skirmished with them and charged 
and a little play until about twelve when they retired. We 
took about 30 prisoners and 60 horses. On the eleventh 
the infantry went at it and drove them from a village called 
Gujon. On the 12th we forced the passage of the Douro 


under a very heavy fire of cannon and musketry and eventually 
succeeded in taking Oporto and about i6 pieces of cannon. 
1 would have written to you by Fitzroy Stanhope but really 
I had not time, for the moment we crossed the river we 
dashed thro' the town and charged the enemy retiring in 
confusion towards Valonga and that evening I was on patrol 
all night in front of Oporto and the next day we marched 

following the enemy up thro' the mountains as far as 

a frontier town about two miles from Gahera into which pro- 
vince we drove the enemy with the loss of 300 horses and 
a great quantity of plunder all their cannon and ammunition 
and 2000 men killed wounded and taken prisoners. I hope 
the people in England are satisfied, for it was the very same 
army (tho' not so numerous) that drove Sir J. Moore's 
army out of Spain commanded by Soult himself that we have 
beat first and then drove them out of Portugal. Our two 
squadrons of horse that you see mentioned in the papers of 
having behaved so well on the 12th, were our right squadron 
commanded by Hervey and our left by Buther in which I was. 
We lost about 29 men killed wounded and taken. Hervey 
has lost his right arm, very high, Knipe has been shot in the 
neck but doing very well, and Hawker slightly wounded in 
the lip and lost his horse, no other officers touched. We halt 
here for a few days to get our horses shod ; we had a dread- 
ful time of it from the 13th of May until the 23, nothing but 
incessant rain and all the time in the mountains . . . The 
poor mare is almost done up. Florist in fine order, a 
charming warhorse, I was on back from eleven o'clock one 
night until ^ past five the next afternoon, and neither he 
nor I had anything but some water which we got in a brook 
during that time. 

To his Mother. 

Talavera, July 25, 1809. 

. . . Since we left Thomar we have not been under any 
other cover than what the woods afforded us. On Friday 
last we formed a junction with the Spanish Army under 
Cuesta, and on Saturday morning both armies advanced 
towards this place; about two leagues from hence we fell 


in with about 12,000 of the enemy who retired before us, 
and took up the position which we now occupy and were 
there joined by another corps of about 1000 men, the whole 
commanded by Victor in person. We halted the evening 
of Saturday about five miles from them and were to have 
attacked at daybreak but Cuesta refused and said he was 
not ready. On Monday we advanced an hour before day in 
high spirits, every individual determined to do his duty to the 
utmost, when we came to the Tagus which was to have been 
forded in front of all their cannon and in the centre of their 
lines by the British troops, they had walked off at about one 
in the morning, leaving us their encampment full of forage. 

To his Father. 

Elvas, August 2g, 1809. 

You doubtless have seen by the papers of the battle that 
was fought at Talavera, and how nobly our army behaved 
during such trying circumstances. I had a severe fit of ill- 
ness about a month ago so much so that I was delirious for 
two days but afterwards I got better but was reduced to 
nothing and even at the present time I am only a skeleton 
and on the sick list. ... I am perfectly certain my illness 
was brought on by excessive fatigue and being deprived of 
wine and being two days without rations. Nothing but dry 
bread and water. Those privations at a time when we were 
undergoing the severest duty occasioned a great number 
to fall sick the very moment it relaxed. 

Dear Eliza, 

I send you by Maurice a gold chain and another for 
Harriot. . . . Our friends the French are very civil, we have 
had no difference of opinion with them these three days, but 
expect one every morning. ... I am quite ragged and out 
at elbows and knees, there is no inhabited place within ten 
leagues of this that you can buy anything wearable. I sup- 
pose if you are to go to Ireland this winter there will be no 
bearing you, you will be queens of the ring at Castle T. and 


Val de Coelha, one league in front of Almeida, July 4, 1810. 

My dear Mother, 

... By the newspapers I see the beautiful Misses Towns- 
end were at Court and that their dresses were only to be sur- 
passed by their beauty. The enemy have been canonading 
Cuidad Roderigo these ten days, it still holds out most gal- 
lantly. We are only three leagues from it and the other 
part of our regiment are not so far. We are with the Light 
division in front of the army so you may think we are pretty 
watchful. Their cavalry are encamped at the other side of 
the Aguida and we see them as plain as possible. We ex- 
pect to have a difference with them in a short time concerning 
this country. 

Maurice, as has been already said, visited the Peninsula 
this summer. Writing- from Plymouth he explains to 
his mother — 

Worcester is dying to make me buy a coat and cocked 
hat and feather, he says they are indispensably requisite for 
travelling in Portugal. If I can get one made cheap I will 
yield to his entreaties, if not let them take me for a merchant 
or what they please. 

A little later he describes the costume he decided on : 

Major Newton, the General's Major of Brigade, told me 
it was absolutely necessary for me to buy regimentals, so I 
have donned a uniform I believe peculiar to myself. I am a 
light Infantry Captain, that being the cheapest mode of 
dressing myself. I have a little jacket, a cap stuck most 
knowingly on one side with a little green feather : a second- 
hand sash and to finish all, a Turkish sabre, very very cheap 
and very elegant.' . . . ' Cintra is beyond everything magnifi- 
cent I ever saw. It is a monstrous mountain of rocks on 
which are several smaller mountains of rock, on the top of the 
highest of which is built the Convent de Pena, or punish- 
ment for friars. In proportion to their fault, so long is their 
confinement, there is one old sinner who has been there fifty 
years and will remain the rest of his life : he must at least 


have put five families to death : the killing one man is so trivial 
a thing they would look over it. . . . We have a monstrous 
pleasant party of young men here who will go up the country 
in a body all well armed : We call ourselves the Junta Club, 
the members are as follows :— The Marquis of Worcester, 
Major, Lord George Granville do., M. F. Townshend, Cap- 
tain, A. Boyle Townshend, Secretary to the Legation, G. P. 
Irwine, Corporal, H. S. Fox, .ensign. The object of the 
Junta is, if we get into a row to stand by and put the Portu- 
guese to death. We all figured away at the Minister's ball 
and flatter ourselves we won the hearts of several of the 
Portuguese nobility. Some of them are comparatively pretty, 
that is for a Portuguese, but positively frightful. 

John Townsend to his Mother. 

Camp near Alverca, August 19, 1810, 

Almeida is now besieged, they began this morning to open 
their batteries from the town and at present there is very 
heavy firing there. Governor Cox is in high spirits, he 
expects to hold out ninety days. I hope we shall relieve it 
and give the Angel of Victory (Massena) a drubbing. 

P.S. A cloak and promotion is all I want, 5 years and a 
half a subaltern is too long 1 

I hear there is a man in the 20 L. D., that will exchange to 
Infantry. Heavy Dragoons I won't go into, I had rather 
' pad it ' than wear Jack boots. 

John Townsend to his Mother. 

Camp near Alverca, August 30, 1810. 

. . . You were only inclined to suppose I was in the un- 
fortunate skirmish when our beloved commander fell, I was 
in it and had my left hand man killed and one covering me 
wounded, since that we have had two more brushes with the 
enemy. Almeida still remains in statu quo, the enemy have 
not as yet opened their batteries on it but the town continues 
to annoy them in their working. The infantry are close in 
our rear, so that I believe it is the intention of Lord Wel- 
lington to defend this position should the enemy advance. 
If they do advance we are confident they will get a most 


confounded drubbing as our army is in excellent health and 
spirits, but you must not publish anything I write, in the 
papers, as some gentlemen of the army have written home 
that the army were in full retreat and it was published, Lord 
Wellington was exceedingly displeased at it. 

Maurice Townsend to his Mother. 

Lisbon, Sept. 29, 1810. 

. . . Two Mr. Napiers are wounded. Lord Wellington's 
position is so strong that he says it's impossible to force him. 
The French marched from Almeida to meet him with twelve 
days provisions on their backs, the weight was so great they 
were obliged to throw most of it away. The consequence is 
they are starving. The Portuguese have behaved inimitably. 
Lord Wellington does not know which to praise most them 
or the English. 

In my humble opinion it would not be correct in Boyle to 
skip a term and if I stay here he will wish to stay also, so I 
think of leaving this place for England the first opportunity 
and keep my term at Oxford as usual. I give myself great 
credit for this resolution, Lisbon is so delightful a place I 
should like to stay here the rest of the winter. ... In talk- 
ing of the engagement just now I forgot to mention the 
French have lost two Generals ... the account came in a 
letter from Lord Wellington, he says the engagement was 
pretty general, the whole of the French force being in action 
and most of ours. If this be true it is most glorious news 
and may perhaps sicken the French until after the winter. 
. . . The ladies in Lisbon are delightfully pleasant and 
rather pretty, but the men are the most uncultivated stupid, 
dirty, ugly, lazy bears I ever met with, they are scarcely re- 
ceived into company by their own countrywomen. 

A. Boyle Townsend to his Mother. 

Lisbon, Oct. 27, 1810. 

I hope that John will get his troop now and that Sir D. D. 
(David Dundas) won't send to the Highlands for one of his 
barelegged countrymen to fill the vacancy. If John does not 
get it, his Majesty does not deserve to have an officer in his 


service. . . . About a fortnight ago a navy officer landed his 
boats crew on one of the islands in the Tagus to pass the 
night, but the sailors instead of sleeping having found some 
mules did not cease riding them the whole night. ... I have 
looked in almost every shop in Lisbon and have not seen 
above twenty garnets nor five saphires. ... I am sure I 
don't know how I shall ever be thankful enough to you and 
my Father for your kindness in sending me abroad. I sin- 
cerely hope that I shall profit by it ; I will endeavour to do so, 
and if I am too stupid I shall still have the satisfaction of being 
the dutiful and affectionate son of such generous parents. 

Maurice Townsend to his Mother. 

Lisbon, Nov. 3, 1810. 

In one of my letters I described our Tour up country, we 
went up as high as Celorico where we saw Jack in high 
health and spirits. Worcester delights in him and he in 
Worcester. I have written to Mr. Webber to thank him for 
his kindness in procuring us leave to skip this term. I have 
employed three or four people in looking for garnets for you, 
there is not such a thing in Lisbon, there are thousands of 
gold chains, not cheap but very thin. I have also seen sets 
of topazes not by any means dear. . . . Should there be any- 
thing like an engagement happen I shall know it, I have 
offers from two or three generals to take care of me in such 
a case, and Jack has promised me the use of a horse. Rely 
upon my not going to close to the French, if I got nine 
shillings a day for being shot at well and good, but as it is 
I may as well keep out of danger. 

John Townsend to his sister Eliza. 

PoNTE DE Roll, Nov. id, 1810. 

... I wrote to my father and told him all the news, this is 
a miserable place and completely uninhabited but still we 
contrive to eixst and are not quite brutes (from the want of 
society) tho' if we have another year in this country the same 
as the last we shall be perfect yahoos and not know how to 
behave ourselves in genteel company. When at Lisbon with 
the Boys (young gentlemen I should have saidj I went to the 


Ministers ball and lost my heart to an olive coloured young 
damsel whose mother said, that Maud (Maurice) Boyle and 
I were three madmen but I was the least mad of the three. 

John Townsend to his Father. 

PoNTE DE Roll, Nov. ii, 1810. 

Nothing particular has occurred between the two armies. 
The enemy from what we learn are daily decreasing by sick- 
ness deaths and desertion, the deaths are principally what 
occur in the foraging parties ; the peasants whenever they 
meet with any of them mark them down and then surround 
them and murder them and fly to the mountains, which to 
a person unacquainted with them are impassable. 

I wish you would call on Lord Bridgewater and ask him if 
I can get the troop or no ; if not get me anything from the 
Lifeguards down to the Botany Bay corps. Having been 
recommended by Colonel Hervey and Lord Wellington I 
think I stand a very good chance. 

John Townsend to his Mother. ^^^ ,1 

I went out with a patrol from a place called Agembuja with 
a sergeant and four men of the 14th joined 5 of the i6th 
Light Dragoons and took fifty of them (the French) armed, 
they fired a volley at my party and then we charged them 
and they surrendered. 

From Maurice Fitzgerald Townsend to his Mother. 

Lisbon, Saturday^ Dec. 15, 1810. 

... I heard of Jack yesterday from Charles Syng, he is 
very well and has done one of the most gallant things that 
has as yet been done in Portugal — namely he with eight of 
his men surprised and brought home as prisoners fifty French 
Troopers, it has been the talk of the town for this last four 
or five days. . . . We are here the jolliest happy party under 
the sun, videlicit Worcester, Fox, Mellish who is become a 
dear Friend of mine, Irvine, Boyle, and myself The Portu- 
gese ladies doat on us, I am desperately in love with two 
or three of them with whom as I am a great proficient in the 
language I talk nothing else but Portugese. I expect on 
my arrival at Cartago to find Jack three inches taller after 


that wonderful feat he was perpetrator of. Give my most 
kind and affectionate love to my father and tell him I wish 
Sir Wm. Manners was hanged drawn and quartered for his 
attempt at stopping the Leicestershire hunting. . . . You 
must have found out long ago that a Portugese has as much 
notion of a pen as a Highlander of a knee buckle. 

In January, 1811, John Tow^nsend sends word to his 

We have races here every Tuesday, and Clifton and 
myself are the Buckle and Chifney of the Santarem Course. 

And later on — • 

You must excuse bad writing as my pen is made out of 
the wing of a turkey we are going to have for dinner. Tell 
Maurice I beg he would send me a good pipe or else I shall 
have the ague, for the country here is very damp in the 
Spring, I have only one of my own manufacturing of a reed. 

Campo St. Anna, near Cartago, Feb. 22, 1811. 

Since I wrote last I have dined twice at Lord Welling- 
ton's who always appears in the highest spirits, in fact he has 
been particularly civil to our regiment. 

On June 13, 181 1, John describes some of his ser- 
vices under Sir Stapleton Cotton, on the retreat from 
Gallejos and at the battle of Fuentes d'Onor, when 
he acted as one of the aides-de-camp. 

On the 5th Sunday, they attacked our right flank with 
about 4000 cavalry 6 guns and some infantry, we had only 
about 1000 cavalry in all and stood them for some time, 
charged them, took three officers and about 200 men prisoners. 
They charged us in return and two of them rode at me and 
knocked me and my horse down (who was wounded in the 
hind leg just before), and took me prisoner for a few minutes 
but just at that moment Col. Ellez the A. A. G. brought up 
another squadron, charged the rascals and I and young 
Fitzclarence were taken again to my no small gratification. 
I have escaped unhurt but with an uncommon black eye. 


Our loss was considerable . . . poor Knife shot thro' the 
breast with a grapeshot and I believe he cannot survive. I 
hope England will do something for Lord Wellington, he 
has beaten their best generals. 

John Townsend succeeded Captain Knife in com- 
mand of the long-desired troop — a letter from the 
Horseguards to his mother says he was strongly 
recommended by Lord Wellington, Sir Stapleton 
Cotton, and Col. Hawker. 

He purposed sending his favourite horse Florist 
home as he was hurt in the leg, but he died of in- 
flammation after twenty-four hours' illness, and his 
master wrote home that the other horses ought to wear 
crape for him. He also says — 

' Tell Eliza I heard of her being at the review at Wimbledon 
comraon, the prettiest girl in London. . . . It may gratify you 
tho' it must go no further to know I was in the squadron of 
the i6th who were with the Royals the 6th of June under 
Dowson and was thanked by General Slade and Sir B. 
Spencer after the skirmish was over. 

El Bodon, Dec. 10, 181 1. 

The guerillas are increasing in numbers and boldness 
throughout the Peninsula, and I think that the French in- 
terest greatly diminishes. Mina, one of the guerillas, took 
1 100 the other day in Aragon and has actually brought 700 
of them thro' the Asturias to Corunna. Charles Synge is 
near here and very well. I am going to dine with him to- 
morrow and go fox hunting the next day with Lord Welling- 
ton's hounds on my old French horse. I shall make but a 
sorry hand of it I am afraid. 

Camp near Cuillar, August 2, 1812. 

No doubt before this reaches you you will have heard of 
the glorious and decisive victory we gained over Marmont 
near Salamanca on the 22nd of July, since which time, and 
before we have had no halt until this day. You will see by 
the dispatches of Lord WeUington a much better account of 


the battle than I can give, but if he had had two hours more 
light we should certainly have annihilated the French army. 
. . . Wilks is going home and by him I will send Eliza a 
handsome watch that was taken by a man of my troop from 
an officer. 

The Honbl. A. J. Southwell to Maurice Townsend. 

C,„ Pau, March g, 1814. 

I am extremely sorry to inform you that your brother 
John was made prisoner by the enemy the night of the 7th 
ultimo in a most unfortunate way, and at all events it will be 
a consolation to his family to know that no blame can be 
attached to him. The enemy came on at two o'clock in the 
morning and unfortunately surprised the advanced piquet of 
the squadron then on duty in support of the piquets. Towns- 
end immediately mounted his horse and galloped to the 
front to ascertain what had attacked our advanced guard but 
which in fact at that time had been drove in by superior 
numbers. . . . Your brother must have found himself in the 
midst of the enemy. ... I shall write to him and send him 
letters of recommendation to some French officers who were 
very kind to me while I M^as a prisoner in their hands, and 
from whom I am sure he will receive all possible attention. 
You may rest assured that Col. Hervey from his regard to 
your brother and his long and distinguished services will 
eagerly seize any opportunity of an exchange. 

The next news of John is given in a letter from his 
brother Maurice, written when London was full of 
rejoicings at the peace. 

My dearest Mother, 
The people in London are all mad, staring and gaping at 
emperors and princes, and many of us think you are all so 
for not being here at this joyful time. I am perfectly ac- 
quainted with all their faces. I met the Prince of Orange 
on Monday night at a Ball, he was most gracious to me and 
shook me most cordially several times by the hand. He 
inquired after all of you. 


I have heard of Jack from several people, one account was 
that the last they saw of him was riding a steeplechase 
against a brother prisoner. I was last night at the illumina- 
tions at Carleton House, it is something superb, a great mob 
assembled there, who mistaking one of the noble visitors for 
his Royal Highness the fat P. R., set up a violent hissing, 
which they altered into as violent applause on ascertaining 
who it was in the carriage. They dragged old Blucher 
about the streets. There is a report about Town that the 
Duke of Wellington has been assassinated in Spain, but it is 
not given much credit to. 

A letter from John, dated Toulouse, May i, 1814, tells 
that he was at length released after having been remark- 
ably well treated during his captivity : he also says in 
every town in France ' the people could not curb their 
joy at getting rid of the Tyrant.' 

Maurice and some friends went to meet John in 
Paris. He writes home, July i, 1814 : — 

Jack, Troy, Southwell, Walsh and myself are now as- 
sembled at the Hotel Versailles in high health, spirits and 
beauty. On Tuesday evening we leave this delightful scene 
of dissipation and frivolity for gloomy England. Jack would 
write but has sprained his thumb in an attempt to thrash me 
— which failed. — Thatis false. J.T. — Perfectly true. We dined 
all of us with Walsh's sister and had a most delightful grub. 
We hope soon to see you all, and believe me ever your most 
affectionate son, 

Maurice FitzGerald Townsend. 


John + Townsend 



John James -f Troy 


Arthur + Southwell 



Paul the black valet de chambre. 
Troy has nearly purchased all Paris. 

John Townsend to his Father. 

Radipole, Oct. 6, 1814. 

Colonel Baker and myself proceed tomorrow morning for 
Plymouth to embark with the squadron of the Regiment that 
accompanies the expedition to the southern part of the 
United States. My troop and Badcock's marched the day 
before yesterday, and I think without flattering the corps 
I never saw a squadron of finer men leave any barracks or 
in higher spirits, it would have done your heart good to hear 
them cheer. Are anxious to be employed again, for a Bar- 
rack life in England after having been actively employed for 
the last five years is one of the most sedentery and detestable 
that can be imagined and where there is neither honour nor 
glory to be gained. I am sure you will be gratified when 
I tell you that I was selected before 6 other captains to go 
with the squadron. 

I remain my dearest Father 
You ever affectionate son 

J. Townsend, Capt. 14 L. D. or 

Royal American Heroes. 

John Townsend to his Sisters. 

My darling Girls, '^'^'- ^' ^s^'>- 

Give the enclosed letter to my father and tell him that he 

must send to Bristol for the Fairy, a little favourite mare that 

I now give to you solely and wholly for your own riding ; 

she was given me by our Col. for which reason I do not wish 

to part with her. 

God bless you both, and if it is possible I will bring you 

at least two squaws home. I am really so happy at the 

thought of being actively employed that I don't know what 

I write. 

To his Mother (same date). 

Tell the two darling girls that I have given their watches 
and chains which I meant to have given them in person to 
Schuyler, who has promised to have them conveyed safe to 


them. Tell Eliza I beg she will give you the little watch 
I gave her that I got at the battle of Salamanca in exchange 
for the one I send by Schuyler, which I know you will keep 
for my sake, as it is the only trophy of all our victories. 

March 10, 1815, Boyle writes from Oxford to his 
mother that 

In the late disastrous attacks on New Orleans, General 
Lambert says The conduct of the two squadrons of the 
14th Light Dragoons has been the admiration of every one 
by the cheerfulness with which they have performed all 
description of service. 

A letter from John was on its way at this time : it 
is dated Isle Dauphin, Feb. 20, 1815. He says : — 

The whole of our little army is encamped on this island, 
not having a house or habitation of any description, but alli- 
gators and parrots on it. In short we have had no commu- 
nication of any sort with the Americans, we are in want of 
everything nearly to make us comfortable, and tho' having 
plenty of dollars we cannot purchase a single thing, and 
being entirely on biscuit and salt pork we are worse here 
than I remember at any time to have been in the Peninsula. 
However we keep up our spirits, and have built a theatre 
which will open in a few days with ' Love a la mode.' 

Colonel Townshend was very tender-hearted ; when 
embarking for India in June, 1841, he could not bear 
to see the distress of the married men of his regiment 
whose wives had not been ' told off' for a free passage, 
and he paid himself for all the women and children 
who would otherwise have been left behind, expending, 
it is said, more than ;^8oo. 

He died in 1845, aged fifty-six. A monument was 
erected to his memory in the church of Castle Towns- 
hend by the officers of his regiment. 

In a military journal, under date May, 1845, is the 

N 2 


following record of Colonel Townshend's death and 
services : — • 

'On the 22nd of April, at his seat, Castle Townshend, 
County Cork, Colonel Townshend of the 14th (King's) Light 
Dragoons, in which regiment, without intermission, he served 
upwards of forty years in the four quarters of the globe, 
and to which corps he was most sincerely and devotedly 
attached. He was beloved in the extreme by every officer 
who served with or under him, and by the non-commis- 
sioned officers and men, their wives and offspring — not 
only beloved, but actually adored. His regiment is now 
serving on the burning plains of India, where he left them 
in November last for the recovery of his health, having had 
the Indian ague, which at last caused his death. He was born 
on the nth of June, 1789^ ; therefore was in the fifty-seventh 
year of his age. He was appointed Cornet in the 14th 
Light Dragoons on the 24th of January, 1805 : Lieutenant 
on the 8th of March, 1806, by purchase : Captain on the 6th 
June, without purchase (in place of Captain Knife who was 
mortally wounded in the battle of Fuentes d'Onor, and died 
a few days after) : Brevet Major on the 21st of January, 
1819, as a reward for active and zealous services during the 
Peninsular War : Major in the regiment, by purchase, on the 
13th of September, 1821 : Lieutenant-Colonel, by purchase, 
on the i6th of April, 1829 : and Aide-de-camp to the Queen 
on the 23rd of November, 1841, consequently Colonel in the 
army. On the i6th of December, 1808, he sailed from Fal- 
mouth with his regiment for Portugal, and disembarked at 
Lisbon on the 24th of December, 1808. He was first en- 
gaged on the plains of Vogo, on the loth of May, 1809, and 
in close pursuit of the enemy on the nth, at the crossing of 
the Douro and capturing of Oporto on the 12th under Sir 
Arthur Wellesley (the enemy commanded by Marshal Soult). 
In the several skirmishes with the French rear-guard from 
Oporto to Gallicia in Spain, from the 13th to the 17th of 
May, 1809. In the engagements of the 27th and 28th of 
July, 1809, at Talavera. In an affair with the enemy's ad- 

' Date corrected bj' Miss H. Somerville. 


vanced posts on the nth of July, 1810, in front of Ciudad 
Rodrigo, under the command of Lieut-Col. Talbot, who was 
killed with many others of the regiment. Engaged with the 
enemy on the 24th of July, 1810, at the passage of the Coa, 
near Almeida, under the command of Major-General Craw- 
ford. In the several skirmishes of the rear-guard from 
Almeida to Buzaco. Was present at Buzaco on the 27th of 
September, 1810 (cavalry not engaged). From Buzaco to 
Coimbra, and on to the great and ever-to-be-remembered lines 
of Torres Vedras, where the army arrived in the early part 
of October, 1810. From the 6th of March to the 4th of April, 

181 1, in the several affairs and skirmishes on the enemy's 
retreat from Santarem to the frontiers of Spain. (These are 
too numerous to particularise here, as the regiment was more 
or less engaged nearly every day). In the engagements of the 
3rd and 5th of May, 1811, Fuentes d'Onor: employed as 
aide-de-camp to Sir Stapleton Cotton, on the 5th was slightly 
wounded and his horse shot. In the affair with the enemy's 
Lancers at Espega on the 25th September, 1811. Employed 
on duty at the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo in December, 181 1, 
and January, 1812. Employed at the siege of Badajoz in 
March and April, 1812. In an affair with the enemy's 
cavalry on the nth of April, 1812, at Usagre and Llarena, 
under the command of Sir Stapleton Cotton. In an affair on 
the i6th of June, 1812, in front of Salamanca. In an affair 
with the enemy's cavalry on the 18th of July, 1812, near 
Castrillos. At the battle of Salamanca on the 22nd of July, 

1812. In an affair with the enemy's rear-guard near Pene- 
rando on the 23rd of July, 1812. In the several skirmishes 
with the enemy's rear-guard on their retreat from Salamanca 
to our taking of Madrid on the 13th of August, 1812. From 
the 24th of October to the 20th of November, 1812, in the 
several skirmishes from Madrid to Salamanca and from 
Salamanca to Ciudad Rodrigo. In the several affairs and 
skirmishes from the 26th of May (these are also too many to 
particularise, as they were nearly daily) to the battle of Vit- 
toria on the 21st of June, when the whole of the enemy's 
baggage was taken or destroyed, together with nearly the 
whole of their artillery. On the 24th of June, 1813, at the 


taking of the enemy's last gun near Pampeluna, under the 
command of Major Brotherton of the same regiment. In the 
several engagements in the Pyrenees on the last three days 
of August, 1813. In the several engagements and skirmishes 
from the entrance of the British army into France, on the 
icth of November, 1813, to the battle of Orthes on the 27th 
of February, 1814, and to the 8th of March, 1814, when he 
was made prisoner of war in an affair with the enemy near 
the city of Pau. This took place about six weeks before the 
termination of the war by the abdication of Napoleon. (In 
consequence of the regiment being nearly daily engaged in 
France, it is impossible to particularise the affairs in that 
country, and bring them within the limits of a newspaper.) 
The whole of the above services were under the chief com- 
mand of his Grace the Duke of Wellington. He was also 
present at New Orleans in America on the 8th of January, 
1815, but not mounted. He was one of the Board of Officers 
appointed by the General commanding-in-chief in 1831 under 
Lord Edward Somerset for revising the formations and 
movements of the cavalry. He had been several times slightly 
wounded, but never quitted the field. He was Aide-de-camp 
to Her Majesty. He served in India with his regiment till 
November, 1844, when he embarked at Bombay. He ar- 
rived in his native country in January last, and expired, as 
before stated. A more humane, kind, tender-hearted and 
generous or a braver soldier did not exist, notwithstanding 
he was in every respect a strict disciplinarian.' 

As Colonel Townshend lived with his regiment, his 
mother reigned at Castle Townshend in his stead. It 
was a hteral reign, for the old feudal feeling of the 
tenants still survived, and they flew to obey a word 
from the 'Madam' as they called her, although she 
herself thoroughly disliked the title, which she con- 
sidered only fit for the native Irish. She managed the 
entire estate, and was successful in several lawsuits. 
Her mind is said by one of her grandchildren to 
have been quite masculine in its power; but she 


had a feminine taste for collecting curiosities and old 

Very proud and exclusive she was too ; it has been 
said that ' Family pride was le mot de Venigme of the 
existence of herself and belongings.' When old, she 
travelled post in her own pale yellow chariot, although 
when younger she had often ridden the sixty miles to 
Cork. She was devoted to her son, Colonel John 
Townshend, and after his death lost all interest in the 
management of affairs, and never even came down- 
stairs, spending her time in a little business room 
called the Bull's Eye, writing letters in a most clear 
and beautiful hand, and arranging old papers. Un- 
fortunately she had a great dislike to any one else 
looking at the family papers, so many of the most 
interesting records have not been copied. She died 
in 1848. i; 

The other sons of Richard Boyle Townshend were 
the Rev. Maurice FitzGerald Stephens -Townshend, who 
succeeded his brother at Castle Townshend ; the Rev. 
Abraham Boyle Townsend, Vicar of East Hampstead, 
Berks, Senior Student of Christ Church, Oxford ; and 
Henry, a young naval officer, who served under his 
kinsman Lord James O'Brien, afterwards Marquis of 
Thomond, and died in the West Indies. The daughters 
were Henrietta Augusta, who married her cousin 
Thomas Somerville of Brisbane, High Sheriff of Cork 
County in 1863 ; and Elizabeth Anne, who married 
the Rev. Robert St. Laurence, Rector of Moragh, 
and son of the Hon. and Right Rev. the Bishop of 

Mrs. Somerville had a ready wit, and strong likes 
and dislikes. One day, a story goes, she drove to call 
on a lady for whom she had no love, and was told by 


the servant that his mistress was out. ' Indeed ! ' an- 
swered Mrs. Somerville. 'Will you tell your mistress 
that the next time she goes out I hope she will take 
her head with her, for now I see it sticking out of 
an upper window.' 

Both the sisters were famed for their beauty. When 
they were presented at Court, Anthony St. Leger, the 
Queen's Chamberlain, standing by, said, 'Those are 
the two young ladies from Ireland I mean to marry.' 
(He was then a widower, and lived next door to them 
in Montague Square.) Queen Charlotte took snuff 
and answered, 'And you have very good taste, Mr. 
St. Leger.' 

Eliza Townshend was witty as well as beautiful, 
and among her other admirers was Sir Robert Peel. 
She once made a pretty impromptu version of Mal- 
herbe's lines on the death of his friend Du Penrier's 
little daughter Rose : — 

' EUe dtait du monde oil les plus belles choses 
Ont le pire destin. 

Rose, elle a vecu ce que vivent les roses, 
L'espace d'un matin.' 

Eliza tore her dress at a ball, and when Sir Robert 
Peel made some joke about it, she promptly answered, 

' Robe, elle a vecu ce que vivent les robes, 
L'espace d'un festin.' 

After her marriage she lived in Brussels, where her 
charming manners and conversation gathered a circle 
around her like that of a French salon of the old 
times. She died at Shanna Court, Castle Townshend, 
preserving her dignity and charm to the last. 

The Rev. Maurice FitzGerald Townshend, who suc- 
ceeded his brother at Castle Townshend, was educated 
at Westminster and Christ Church, Oxford. His 


brother John mentions in one of his letters from the 
Peninsula, ' I hear Maurice has taken his degree with 
great eclat.' 

His letters from Lisbon and Paris have been already 
given. When a young man he lived much in the best 
London society, and danced at Almack's in the first 
quadrille ever performed in England. 

In 1824 he was appointed Vicar of the Christ Church 
living of Thornbury, Gloucestershire, with its three de- 
pendencies, Rangeworthy, Oldbury and Falfield, which 
three places he caused to be erected into three separate 
livings, to his own loss. 

He was at this time not a rich man, having only his 
younger son's portion of ;£'5ooo, but finding the widow 
of his predecessor in poor circumstances, he remitted 
the sum due for dilapidations at the Vicarage. He 
repaired and added to it, and yet his daughter at his 
death in 1872 had to pay altogether ;$;"46o for dilapi- 

On the i6th of May, 1826, he married Ahce Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Shute and his wife Harriet Willis, 
sister of Harry Willis Stephens, of Eastington and 
Chavenage, Gloucestershire, who died a monk at La 
Trappe. The Shute family is kin to Viscount Bar- 
rington. The Willis grandfather of Alice Elizabeth 
Shute was descended from Richard Stephens of 
Chavenage and his wife Anne, daughter of the heroic 
Cavalier Sir Hugh Cholmondeley. Richard Stephens 
was son of Nathaniel Stephens, M.P. for the county 
of Gloucester in the Long Parliament, but who abstained 
from voting at the time of King Charles's death, 1649. 
The Stephens and Cromwell families were connected 
by marriage, and Abigail, daughter of Nathaniel 
Stephens, married the well-known Sir Edward Harley 


of Brampton Bryan, and was mother of Queen Anne's 
Minister, the first Earl of Oxford. 

Ahce EUzabeth Shute was heiress by survival in her 
uncle Henry Stephens, and assumed his name. (Her 
husband bore three crests, Townshend, FitzGerald, 
and Stephens.) She was heiress of Chavenage and 
Lady of the Manors of Eastington, Horsley, Fretherne, 
and Alkerton. Mrs. Stephens-Townshend had three 
children, and died at Castle Townshend, aged only 

A fate seemed to hang over the mansion at Castle 
Townshend. One house was destroyed in the Jacobite 
wars, another fell down during alterations, and in 
November in 1852 the building raised by Richard 
Boyle Townshend was accidentally burnt to the ground. 
A quantity of plate, FitzGerald and Townshend heir- 
looms, was kept in a room at the top of the house, and 
so fierce was the blaze that the silver ran down in 
molten streams in large quantities, and Mr. Stephens- 
Townshend thought it worth while to send a Bristol silver- 
smith to Ireland to search among the ruins and value the 
silver by the pound ! His search was so well rewarded 
that he found it worth while to go off to America with 
his treasure, and he has never been heard of since ! 

Mr. Stephens-Townshend was a most benevolent 
landlord. On coming into the Castle Townshend and 
Dingle properties in 1845, the first thing he did was to 
draw his pen through ^10,000 of arrears, hoping thus 
to enable his tenants to make a fresh start. He also 
remitted the toll fares at Skibbereen, a gift of ;£'3oo to 
the town. 

In 1869, T. McCarthy Downing, M.P. for Co. Cork, 
presented to him in the name of his tenantry a testi- 
monial in acknowledgment of his unbounded generosity 


during the years of famine and the unusually long leases 
with which he had almost gifted them with his estates^ 
said to be let between ;^i5oo and ;^2ooo below their actual 
annual value ^. A ripe classical scholar, of original wit 
and retentive memory, he was a delightful companion. 

He died in 1872 at Thornbury, and at his own wish 
was buried in a simple grave among the poor of his 

His only son, Henry John, died in 1869. He was 
educated at Eton, and for ten years held a commission 
in the Second Lifeguards. He married in 1864 his 
cousin Jane Adeliza Hussey de Burgh, eldest daughter 
of John Hamilton Hussey de Burgh of Kilfinnan Castle, 
Glandore, and Louise Jane Townshend of Shepperton. 
Her great-great-grandfather was the well-known orator 
Walter Hussey Burgh, famous for his oration in 1779. 
Henry John Townshend left two sons, Maurice Fitz- 
Gerald Stephens, born in 1865, and Hubert de Burgh 
Fitz-Gerald, born 1867. 

Mr. Stephens -Townshend left a 'life interest succes- 
sively' in the Castle Townshend property, and the 
whole of his Dingle and Kerry estates, to be divided 
between his two daughters. The elder of these, Geral- 
dine Henrietta, married Major-General Pierrepont 
Mundy, late Royal Horse Artillery, the following sketch 
of whose life appeared in The Bristol Times and 
Mirror : — 

' He was the sixth son of General Godfrey Basil Mundy, 
who was the second son of Mr. E. Miller Mundy of Shipley, 
Derbyshire, M.P., by his first wife Frances Meynell, daughter 
and co-heir of Mr. Godfrey Meynell, " father of the Meynell 
Hunt." General G. B. Mundy, who served in the Cavalry 
and was for many years A.D.C. to his brother-in-law 

' Father Davis of Baltimore also signed this testimonial. 


General Lord Charles FitzRoy (who married Miss Mundy 
of Shipley), married the Hon. Sarah Rodney, youngest 
daughter of the great Admiral Lord Rodney, by whom he 
had several sons and one daughter, the mother of the pre- 
sent Godfrey, Lord Tredegar. Born in Derbyshire, August 
4th, 1815, and educated at Dr. Everard's school at Brighton, 
known as the " House of Lords," General Pierrepont Mundy's 
schoolfellows included the present Dukes of Beaufort and of 
Rutland. He entered the Royal Military Academy of Wool- 
wich at the age of 14 (in 1829-30), and was head of his batch 
on leaving, with the choice of entering Engineers or Artillery. 
Choosing the latter for its " smartness," he continued in the 
regiment until he was a full Colonel, when his lameness from 
a dislocated hip becoming more trying, he retired on full 
pay, with the honorary rank of Major-General. He applied 
to go to the Crimea in 1854-5 : but the head of the War 
Office, his first-cousin. Lord Lincoln, afterwards Duke of 
Newcastle (whose mother was Miss Mundy of Shipley), pro- 
cured for him the more pacific office of buying horses for 
remounts, and the war was over before the opportunity for 
Captain Mundy's distinction in other fields but those of 
cricket and hunting and every " manly exercise " occurred. 
Later he was sent out in command of the Artillery troops to 
New Brunswick (1862), but the Mason and Slidell business 
had ended peacefully before he landed. In 1859 he married 
Mrs. Richards, widow of E. P. Richards, Esq., of Plas 
Newydd, near Cardiff. Mrs. Pierrepont Mundy died in 
1865, and subsequently General Mundy married Miss 
(Geraldine Henrietta) Townsend. After his second mar- 
riage. General Mundy resided in Gloucestershire at his hunt- 
ing box, Thornbury House, where he became well known to 
all who frequented cricket matches or the hunting field. We 
believe that the General was an original member of Pratt's 
Club, and the " I Zingari " Cricket Club. He was known as 
one of the best racquet-players in England. In fact there 
were few games in which he did not excel. In cricket he on 
one occasion played with the Gentlemen of England v. the 
Players, on the winning side. He was a thorough gentle- 
man and an ardent sportsman, a smart officer, with a host of 


friends and never a foe. In the " Badminton Library " an 
article on Tandem Driving contains a sketch of him as 
" Mentor," by his friend Sir C. Teesdale, who writes of 
himself as " Telemachus." 

' Subjoined is an anecdote showing the humorous straight- 
forwardness of General " Pip " Mundy in very early life. 
His parents lived at Brighton (owning Norfolk House, now 
the hotel of that name), for the education of their children. 
The King loved children, and often gave balls to amuse them 
and himself. At one of these dances little Pierrepont Mundy 
was sitting on his Majesty's knee — who remarked on his 
small and beautiful feet and hands and then said, " What 
pretty shoes " ! " They are not my shoes, George the 
Fourth," replied the child, " they are my sister's ! " {prob- 
ably a long-discarded pair used for the occasion). In treat- 
ing of the General's subsequent prowess in every " field of 
exercise," it should be added that his many-sided character 
included the charm of wit and pleasantry — the life and soul 
of his domestic circle. He was a clever draughtsman and 
devoted to music, with a wonderful ear for it. He read a 
good deal, and " never was bored in his life " ! ' 

The second daughter of Mr. Stephens-Tovi^nshend, 
Alice Gertrude, married in 1856 the Honourable and 
Rev. Courtenay Vernon, brother and heir to Lord 
Lyveden and great-nephew of Sydney Smith. 

The pleasure show^n by the tenants on Mrs. Mundy's 
arrival at Castle Townshend had its comic side. 
As her carriage was passing through the crowded 
streets of Skibbereen on a market day, an old woman 
was accidentally knocked down. Of course the carriage 
was stopped, and inquiries were made after the woman's 
injuries. But the poor thing was found, half-fainting, 
held up between two men who were shaking her and 
scolding her soundly for getting in the way and 
frightening ' the Madam ' when she was coming home 
at last ! 


When they reached Castle Townshend there was a 
great welcome, and in the evening a man asked to see 
Mrs. Mundy. He greeted her with, ' Oh, it's the fine 
day that sees your ladyship in the old place,' and sinking 
his voice, ' and if there's any one you'd hke rowlled in 
the river— why,' pointing to himself, 'I'm your man.' 
' What ! ' cried Mrs. Mundy ; ' why should I want any 
one rolled in the river? ' ' Och, bedad! and it isn't out 
of it he'd come in a hurry, and if you should want any 
one put in, I'd just like your ladyship to know I'm your 
man ! ' An old woman, too, came to beg that a neigh- 
bour she disliked might be put out of a cottage near, 
and when Mrs. Mundy tried to explain that she did not 
turn out tenants without some good reason, the old 
woman sidled up to her, and slipping a sovereign into 
her hand whispered, 'Ah, now, ye'll just turn her out 
and not say a word about it, and that's for yourself ! ' 

A good deal of Irish history seems to be explained 
by these anecdotes. 


Mary, dau. of :^ Richard, iip Elizabeth, d 

Samuel Synge, 
Dean of Kildare. 

i^.July 15, 1684, 
a. 1742. 

of Aughadown 
Col. Henr 

Samuel, Mary =: 
b. 1706, Margaretta, 
d. 1725. m. 1746. 

Rev. T. Daunt. Richard, 

(Table V.) of Castle Towns- 
hend, tn. 1750, 
d. 1783, 


Richard Boyle, 

b. 17^6, rn. 1784, 

d. 1827. 

: Henrietta, i. o 

Devon sherb)', 

of Mary I. o: 

Henrietta, dierbi 

of Roxrna 

b. 1764 

b. 1785, 
d. 1805. 

John, Maurice : 

Col. 14th FitzGerald, 

Light Dragoons, took the name 
d, 1845. Stephens- 

m. 1826, d, 1872, 

Vicar of 
Thornbury, &c. 

: Alice 

Elizabeth Chute, 

heir to her uncle 

Col. Stephens, 

of Chavenage, 

d. 1831. 

Henry, R.N., 
d. young 

Abraham Boyle, 

Sen. Student 

Ch. Ch., 

Rector of 


d. unmar. i860. 

Henry John, 

2nd Lifeguards. 

b. 1S27. fn 1864, 

d. 1869. 

: Jane Adeliza 

Clementina, dau. of John 

Hussey De Burgh, of 

Kilfinnan Castle, and 

Louisa Jane Townsend ; 

rk. 2ndly 

A, Cave, of Cappagh. 

Geraldine :=: 
/«. 1870. 

Major Gen. 






Hubert De Burgh 
of Shepperton. 


z= Fanny 

Leslie Hill, of 
WoUaston Hall. 





Hugh Vernon, 

Charles Richard, 
b. 1880. 

George Ma^ 



A Memorandum given by Judge Townsend to Mrs. 
Pierrepont Mundy. 

Richard Townsend of Castle Townshend, eldest son of 
Colonel Bryan Townsend, was owner of the Castle Towns- 
hend estates, which comprised at that time not only the 
lands granted by patent to his grandfather Colonel Richard 
Townesend, but also certain lands which had been annexed 
by the augmentation act to the Archiepiscopal See of Dublin, 
although the lands lie in the county of Cork. These latter 
were — 

1. North and South Aghills (since called Shepperton). 

2. Brisbane and Farrendagh. 

3. East and West Myross. 

4. Kilcoe. 

5. Glannafoyne (near Loch Ine). 

Richard Townshend, who died in 1742, held these See lands 
as tenant to the Archbishop of Dublin. 

By his will he directed that the leases should be changed 
into leases for lives, which was done after his death. Richard 
Townshend devised all his estates to his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Henry Becher, and a question arose whether 
she was entitled to them absolutely, or only for life, with 
a power of disposing of them among his sons Richard, John, 
and Henry. 

Richard died in 1742. After his death his widow made 
her will, appointing the estates among her three sons just 
meiitioned. To Richard she appointed what are still called 
the Castle Townshend estates. To John ' she appointed the 
See lands ; and to Henry, the youngest son, she appointed 
the lands of Dunbeacon, Ardra, and Ballintona, all in the 
County of Cork. 

1 Commissioner of Excise, and M.P. for Clonakilty. 


This Henry died unmarried, and left his property to 
Richard, the eldest son of his brother John. (This Richard 
was usually known in the family as Dick of the Point.) 
Therefore there was no necessity for John to make any 
provision for his eldest son, and he was enabled to divide the 
See lands between his other sons, Jonas Morris, Henry, 
and Abraham. John built a residence on Aghills which he 
called 'Shepperton,' so that his branch of the family were 
usually called the Shepperton family. Shepperton he left 
to his second son Jonas Morris, who married Jane Digby; 
Kilcoe he left to Henry, and Drishane and Glannafoyne to 

But John had previously made a lease of Drishane and 
Farrendagh to his son-in-law Thomas Somerville, with a 
covenant to renew to his heirs as often as he (John) should 
renew with the Archbishop of Dublin. He made a similar 
lease with a similar covenant to a person named Atkins of 
the land of Glannafoyne. 

After Jonas Morris's death his son John Morris became 
entitled to Shepperton and to another estate called Cahira 
which Commissioner John had purchased. John Morris 
died leaving all his estates to his mother (Jane Digby). 

After Henry's death, John FitzHenry, the writer of this 
note, became entitled to Kilcoe, and also under the will of 
his uncle Abraham to Drishane and Glannafoyne, subject to 
the leases and covenants. 

Mrs. Morris Townshend and John FitzHenry joined in 
purchasing the fee simple of the Church-lands, so Shepper- 
ton became the estate in fee simple of Mrs. Morris Towns- 
hend. John FitzHenry (being bound by the Church Tem- 
poralities Act) conveyed the fee simple in Drishane to 
Thomas Somerville. John FitzHenry is now owner of 
Kilcoe and Myros, and a rent charge out of Glannafoyne. 
Dunbeacon belonged to the late Richard Mellifont Towns- 
hend, who died at Nice. 

Ballintona and Ardra were sold in the Landed Estates 
Court, and are no longer the property of any of the Towns- 
hend family. 



The Soinerville Family. 

The Rev. William Somerville fled to Ireland in an open 
boat in 1692 to escape the persecution that was then being 
inflicted on the Episcopal Clergy in Scotland. 

He was accompanied by his two sons and his daughter 
with her husband, afterwards Archdeacon Cameron. 

One of the sons, Thomas, was educated in Dublin and 
became a clergyman. His first curacy was Christchurch, 
Cork. He was reader of St. Barry's, and planted the lime- 
trees round the churchyard. He married Anne, eldest 
daughter of John Neville, of Newcastle, near Dublin, widow 
of John Perry of Woodruffe, and granddaughter of Edward 
and Anne Riggs of Riggsdale. The Nevilles trace their 
descent from John of Gaunt through Edward fifth Lord 
Abergavenny. John Neville, by his second wife. Miss Allen, 
left a daughter Alice, who married Thomas Corker, father of 
Archdeacon Corker \ (See notes, Table XH.) 

It is supposed that William, the elder brother of the Rev, 
Thomas Somerville, returned to Scotland, as a letter from 
him is preserved in which he says, ' I received your last 
through Lord Somerville. I suppose it was he who sealed 
it, as when writing to the head of the family it is not 
usual to use the arms.' Lord Somerville was at this time 
quartered at Cork. On taking the livings of Myros and 
Castlehaven Thomas Somerville took a lease of Castlehaven 
castle, where the family resided till Thomas Townsend 
Somerville built a house on the present site of Drishane. 
During the long minority of his son the castle was let to an 
Englishman, who pulled down portions of it whenever he 
wanted stone, so that it was reduced to a ruin''' 

After the sons of Henry Townshend of Castle Townshend 
and the children of Mrs. Courtenay Vernon his sister, the 
' Mrs. Judith Cameron. '■ Miss H. Somei-ville. 


(Tables III-VIII.) 

Notes on Table III. 

^ John Townesend was probably born before Colonel 
Townesend came to Ireland in 1647, but the place and 
date of his birth are not at present known. He married 
in 1666 Lady Catherine Barry, then aged about sixteen. 
She was the daughter of Richard, second Earl of 

The great family of Barry was descended from 
William de Barri and Angareth, daughter of Princess 
Nesta of Wales and sister of FitzGerald, ancestor of 
the Geraldines. In the end of the sixteenth century 
the Great Barry, Barrymore, was also Lord of Ibawne 
and Viscount Buttevant, and in the time of Charles I 
the young Lord David was created Earl of Barrymore. 
He was a person ' of great generosity, humanity, and 
Christian charity ^,' and required his family to accompany 
him to hear sermons twice a day on Sundays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays. 

^ The greater part of this notice is extracted from Judge FitzHenry Towns- 
hend's article on the Earls of Barrymore, printed in the Abbeystrewry 
Magazine. '' Lodge. 

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His wife was Alicia, daughter of the great Earl of 
Cork, and sister of Lord Broghill and the learned 
Robert Boyle. Her father^ devised to her the 
monastery of Castlelyons (granted to him at the dis- 
solution of the religious houses) 'to buy her gloves 
and pins.' When Earl David closed his creditable 
career and was buried in the Boyle vault at Youghal, 
the old Earl of Cork ^ showed his concern for his 
daughter's early widowhood by leaving bequests to her 
three children, and especially recommending a good 
education for the boy. 

She consoled herself by marrying Colonel James 
Barry of Liscarrol, having it seems taken a fancy to 
the family. He was generally known as Colonel Jack 
Barry, and was a Roman CathoHc. He served under 
Ormonde, and kept up a correspondence with his 
brother-in-law Broghill, and so prudently kept in favour 
with both sides. By the wish of the talented Countess 
Ranelagh, his aunt, the young Earl of Barrymore was 
placed under the care of John Milton in his house at 
the Barbican ^, but Milton soon after gave up taking 
pupils, and does not seem to have had so much influ- 
ence over young Barrymore as over Lord Ranelagh's 
son, with whom he kept up a long correspondence. 

When Cork declared for the Parliament in 1649 
Lord Inchiquin was staying with Colonel Jack Barry, 
but the young Earl was away in France getting married 
to one of the maids of honour — Susan, daughter of Sir 
William Killigrew. The Dowager Countess does not 
seem to have liked her new daughter-in-law, and a letter 
of condolence to her on the marriage is printed in 
Robert Boyle's works. However, the young Countess 

'■ Archdale, Monas. Hib. ' Masson's Milton, iii. 660. 

^ Wood's Fasti, i. 483. 


allowed her second daughter to be named Catherine, 
after Lady Ranelagh, so it is to be hoped that the 
family made friends after all. The Earl was a soldier, 
and his commission as Colonel of Infantry is still in the 
possession of Judge Townshend, who also has the 
Earl's handsome snuff-box. 

As it has been said, Lord Barrymore's second 
daughter, Catherine, married John Townsend, and it 
is believed that Colonel Townesend built the large 
mansion at Castle Townshend for the young pair, who 
meanwhile lived at Timoleague. But their married 
Hfe did not last long. John Townsend died before 
his father, and his son Richard Fitzjohn followed him 
while still young. Lady Catherine married as her 
second husband Captain Charles Barclay, of London^, 
and had one daughter, Elizabeth, who married Captain 
Richard Wills. Lady Catherine gave her as a marriage 
portion three hundred pounds then owing by Bryan 
Townsend, and a hundred pounds more of her own, 
and an annuity of ten pounds for fifty years provided 
her own jointure lasted so long. No money seemed to 
come to Elizabeth from her father, and there is no 
mention of property belonging to her husband, nor 
of where he came from ^. 

Bishop Dives Downes (who married Horatio Towns- 
end's widow) mentions in his tour that he stayed with 
Lady Catherine ' Berkeley ' at Skibbereen. 

The Earls of Barrymore did not all imitate the 
virtues of Earl David, and it is hardly surprising that 
their race dwindled and the title died out. Sir Egerton 
Bridges says of the seventh Earl : — 

' The marriage settlement of Lady Catherine and Captain Barclay is 
among tlie Castle Townshend deeds. 

^ Letter from Miss E. Townshend (afterwards IMrs. St. Laurence) Feb 


' With talents to shine in the course of honourable ambi- 
tion, with wit, good-nature and engaging manners, he shone 
a meteor of ten-fold wonder and regret by freaks which would 
have disgraced a Buckingham or a Rochester, till the acci- 
dental explosion of a musket put an end to his troubles and 
follies on 9th March, 1793.' 

He was popularly called ' Hellgate,' and his brother, 
the eighth and last Earl, who succeeded him, was club- 
footed, and so known as ' Cripplegate ' ; the third 
brother was styled ' Newgate,' because he passed 
much of his time in prison as a debtor, and their only 
sister was honoured by the title of 'Billingsgate'! It 
is said that the Barry race were placed under a 
' Mailloch,' an Irish curse of great vigour, by some old 
woman whose husband and sons the Lord Barrymore 
had hung in the rebellion of 1641. Judge Townshend 
heard the legend and curse (in the Irish tongue) from 
Mr. James Redmond Barry of Glandore, who claimed 
to be Viscount Buttevant, but somehow the House of 
Lords did not think his proofs satisfactory. Among 
the documents in his possession was the settlement 
executed on the marriage of John Townesend and 
Lady Catherine Barry. 

The Barry estates are now in the possession of the 
Smith-Barrys, but if IVIr. Redmond Barry is not heir- 
male, the heir-general of the Barrymore family must be 
sought in the descendants of Catherine Townesend, for 
the rest of her father's line is extinct. If we could find 
him, he would it seems be entitled to style himself 
Lord Barry, because the Barony was in fee, and would 
descend to the heir-general of Earl Richard, Lady 
Catherine's father. The Earldom is clearly extinct, but 
both Viscounty and Barony rest ' in gremio legis ' or 
' in nubibus.' 


Richard MellifontTownshend inherited John Townes- 
end's seal. It was a curious one, and seems to have 
had three stones ^, one plain, one engraved with a stag, 
and the third was missing. 

Susanna, the only surviving child of John and 
Catherine, married her cousin. Colonel James Barry 
of Lisnagar, the McAdam Barry. He descended from 
Sir Robert de Barri, an elder brother of the ancestors 
of the Earls of Barrymore. 

A Chancery suit^ shows that Colonel James Barry 
was a widower when he married Susanna Townsend, 
but the children of his first wife, Mary Anselme, died 
unmarried. By Susanna he left two daughters, one of 
whom left no descendants ; the other married John 
Townsend of Skirtagh (Table IX), whose descendants 
now represent the families of Barrymore and McAdam 
Barry. In the male line the children of Colonel James 
Barry's step-brother carry on the family of Lisnagar. 

Mrs. Townsend of Skirtagh and her sister were left 
bequests by their step-brother Redmond, as ' My sisters 
Townshend and Dunscombe.' 

Notes on Table IV. 

The date of Francis Townsend's birth is not known. 
The settlement on his marriage with Catherine Honnor 
is dated Nov. loth, 1679, and was lately in the posses- 
sion of Richard Mellifont Townshend ^ It is sealed 
with the arms of the Honnor family. Or, on a bend az. 
between two hawks' heads erased sa. three cinquefoils 
of the second. William Honnor lived at Madame, 
near Clonakilty^. It had originally belonged to 

1 Table I. - Described by John Sealy Townshend. 

' Feb. 23rd, 1750; quoted by John Sealy Townshend. 

' Of Nice, France; Table I. = J. Sealy Townshend. 













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Dermond McFinnin McCartie, who mortgaged it to 
Sir Robert Travers. 

Francis Townsend was a captain in the army. He 
was proscribed as a traitor by James II's Irish Parlia- 
ment, and took his wife and five children to England 
for safety. At that time the Trinity College (Dublin) 
MS. hst of fugitives says his estates were worth £^40 
yearly. Francis signed a bond for the debts of his 
brother-in-law, Dominic Copinger, and his brother 
Philip laid claim to some of Dominic's land in 1684 on 
behalf of Francis's eldest son Richard. In the year 
1705 Dorothy and Jane Townsend were living. Judge 
Townshend believes they were daughters of Francis, 
but the only descendant given in most pedigrees is 
Richard, who lived near Bandon and married Miss 
Minchin. Richard's eldest son, Francis of Clogeen, 
was sworn freeman of Clonakilty, 1728. The second son, 
Butler^, entered Trinity College, Dubhn, 1727, aged 17. 
Ordained priest at Cork 1743. Licensed August 26th, 
1747, to the curacy of Kilgariffe, Ross. He died in the 
same week as his nephew Butler, leaving no children. 
Francis and Richard both married ladies of the name 
of Roche, who bore the arms of Roche, Lord Fermoy. 
Francis left two daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
married William Stewart of Wellfield, whose arms 
were those of Scotland ' in a border gobonated arg. and 
az.' Wellfield is described as — 

' The seat of Rev. W. Stewart, a gentleman honourably 
distinguished for spirited and judicious improvements. It 
stands upon a part of Lord Shannon's estate, taken on a lease 
of three lives. It was then in a rude and impoverished state, 
with a good deal of wet and waste ground, destitute of trees 
or proper enclosures. By draining, dressing and enclosing 

' Brady's Records. 


it is now a very handsome as well as productive farm, with 
the addition of an excellent house, garden, and planta- 
tions \' 

His son, the Rev. H. W. Stewart, vi^as head of the 
classical school at Clonakilty. The Statistical Survey 
speaks of his ' combination of talent and dihgence,' and 
says that in a very short time the number of boarders 
had increased from twelve to fifty. 

Notes on Table V. 

Horatio Townsend was captain of the Lynn sloop of 
war. His gallant exploits have been already described 
in treating of his father's life, but the most romantic 
part of the story has yet to be told. He landed one 
day on Shirkin Island, and visited the castle, when he 
unexpectedly came on Mrs. Becher, combing the long 
hair of her lovely daughter Elizabeth, who was sitting 
at her mother's feet. The impressionable sailor was 
struck motionless with admiration. But the course of 
true love did not run smooth; perhaps Mrs. Becher 
hoped for a better match, for at the time of the land- 
ing of James H in Ireland Horatio was only worth 
a hundred a year. Mrs. Becher took care that the 
lovers had few chances of meeting, but they kept up a 
constant correspondence, and at last their constancy 
was rewarded, and they were married. They only had 
one daughter, Penelope, and then Horatio died of a 
fever on board his ship, leaving all his small property to 
his ' affectionate wife,' who was sole executrix. His short 
will is dated 1697, and was proved in 1705; but, alas 
for the romance, by that time Elizabeth Townsend was 
the wife of Bishop Dives Downes ! Sir Thomas Becher ^ 

' Statist. Surv., Townsend, i. 331. ' Caulfield, Kinsale. 

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wrote from Shirkin Island on July 30th, 1701, ' I have 
married my daughter Townsend to the Bishop of Cork.' 
He must have been a great contrast to her sailor 
husband, for he was ' remarkable for his prudence and 
gravity, as well as for his learning.' She bore him one 
daughter, Elizabeth, and died young, her will being 
proved August, 1707. 

Notes on Becher. 

The Becher family claim descent from Sir Eustace 
Bridgecourt, who came from Hainault as a follower of 
Queen Philippa in 1328, and they settled in Cork in the 
time of Elizabeth. 

Colonel Thomas Becher of Baltimore lived in the 
castle on Shirkin Island. He was an active, powerful 
man in those stirring times, and his name is constantly 
met with in County Cork records. When James II 
landed in Cork and most of the English settlers placed 
their families in safety, Thomas Becher, his wife and 
seven children, were among those who left the country. 
He was one of the richest of the gentry, his estates 
being valued at .^898 a year. He acted as aide-de- 
camp to King William at the battle of the Boyne, and 
was presented by the King with his own watch ; it has 
a beautiful chased silver case, and only one hand, which 
points to the hours ; the minutes are marked on a small 
dial, which revolves in the centre of the large face ^. 

Colonel Becher married Elizabeth, daughter of Major 
Henry Turner and Dorothy daughter of the Right 
Reverend Richard Boyle, Archbishop of Tuam. His 
daughter Elizabeth was the heroine of Horatio Towns- 
end's romantic story ^, and the next daughter Susanna ^ 

' Now in the possession of J. R. Becher of Loch Ine. 

2 Table V. and notes. '^ Chap. xi. 


married Thomas Hungerford of the Island. The eldest 
son, Henry, married Catherine, daughter and heir of 
Colonel Henry Owen, a cousin of Colonel Arnop, who 
is described in Orrery's letter ^ as ' somewhat crazed.' 
Her brother John had married a daughter of Colonel 
Richard Townesend, but died without children. The 
Owens were an Oxfordshire family who had fought on 
the King's side in the civil wars, and settled at Balti- 
more about 1650. Colonel Owen's wife was Margaret, 
daughter of Sir William Piers, of Finsternagh, County 
Westmeath, and granddaughter of Archbishop Jones, 
the ancestor of Lord Ranelagh ^. 

Aughadown House, the principal residence of the 
Becher family, was pulled down some years ago. It 
was a strong castellated mansion, entered by a draw- 
bridge, surrounded by beautiful grounds, and having a 
gazebo on one of the heights behind the house. No 
vestige of the old house at Creagh remains. 

Notes on Table VII. 

Philip Townsend was born 1664 at Kilbrittan Castle, 
near Timoleague, one of the castles forfeited by Mc- 
Carthy Reagh in 1642. Colonel Townesend resided 
there while Castle Townsend was building. It was 
a stately building, environed with a large bawn, and 
fortified with turrets on the top ^. 

Philip entered Trinity College, Dublin, 1684 *. He 
was a captain of horse in King William's army, and 
afterwards took holy orders. He was Prebendary of 
Liscleary (Cork), Rector and Vicar of Aghingh (Cloyne), 
and Vicar of Christchurch (Cork). This latter pre- 
ferment he held from 1707 till his death. He was 

' Chap. V. ^ See Barrymore history, Table II. 

^ Smith's Hist. Co. Cork. * Brady's Records, i, 112. 


executor to his father's will, 1692, and claimed land 
from Domenic Copinger, on behalf of his nephew 
Richard, in 1684. He married, about 1708, Helena, 
daughter of John Galway, who died of consumption 
in 1711. Philip died in 1735, and was buried in Christ- 
church, Cork, May 26. 


Sixth Son of Colonel Townesend. 

Philip, ^ Helena Galway, 

b. 1664, 
d- 1735- 

d. 1711. 

I I 

Mary, =p (i) John Becher, = (2) Col. Mercer, Elizabeth, 
A. 1710. ofAughadown, ofCreagh. 6.1709, 

m. 1727, d. 1730. d. unmarried. 

{See Table VI for descendants of John Becher who represent 
Philip Townesend.) 

His daughter Mary married, as her first husband \ 
John Becher of Aughadown, who died in 1738, when 
Samuel Townsend of Whitehall was made guardian 
of young Thomas Becher, Elizabeth, widow of Richard 
Townsend of Castle Townsend, being guardian of the 
other children. The descendants of Mary Becher now 
represent Philip Townsend's line. 

Notes on Table VIII. 

Tradition says that Cornelius Townsend was born 
in 1666 in the mansion of an Irish chieftain who had 
sheltered Mrs. Townesend during the disturbances of 
that year, and after whom the infant was named Cor- 

This story is firmly believed in the family, having 

1 Both Philip Townsend and John Becher settled considerable estates on 
this marriage. Reg. Deed, August 19, 1727. 















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been handed down by John Sealy Townsend, Master 
in Chancery, whose father, Dr. Richard Townsend of 
Derry, was born only forty years after the death of 
Cornehus ; and Judge Fitz-Henry Townshend heard it 
in 1828 from his aunt, Catherine Helena Townshend. 
But there must be some confusion about the dates, 
unless there was an earlier Cornelius Townsend be- 
longing to some other family, for on the Council-book 
of Clonakilty ' Cornelius Tounsend ' is entered as pre- 
sent at a meeting in 1675, and as elected sovereign 
in 1676, when the subject of this memoir should 
only have been ten years old. He married Jane, 
daughter of Captain John Sweet ^, one of the. officers 
who served the king before 1649, or "49 officers' as 
they were called. It is curious to see how quickly 
the memories of the civil wars faded, and how Colonel 
Townesend's children married into the opposite 

When Cornelius married, his father settled on him 
the land of Kilcrane, mortgaged to him by the Earl of 
Barrymore. Cornelius died young, and during the 
minority of his son there was a lawsuit instituted 
concerning this land against the O'Heas and Daniel 
McCarthie Reagh. 

One of the sons of Cornelius Townshend died un- 
married in the West Indies; the elder, John Fitz- 
Cornelius, married twice. 

First, Margaret, daughter of Captain William Bowdler 
of Condor, Salop, who bore as his arms three Cornish 
choughs on a silver shield. He was a captain in 
Cromwell's Irish army, and acquired lands in County 
Cork in the neighbourhood of Rosscarbery. In his 

' Colonel R. Townesend was overseer of the will of John Sweet of 
Mohanah, Barony Ibaune, 1676. 



wilP, dated 1706, he leaves the estate of Cashall, 
Dunsculhge, Dromulhhy and Kilbogg to the eldest 
surviving son of his late daughter Margaret. Fail- 
ing her descendants, the lands were to go to his 
nephevi?, W. Bowdler of Longnor, in the parish of 
Condor. To each of his granddaughters he leaves the 
sum of fourscore pounds on her attaining the age of 
eighteen. His will makes no mention of his other 
daughter, Joyce, who was married to the Quaker 
Captain Morris, but Captain Morris is one of the 
executors, and the burial is ordered to take place in 
Castle Salem burying-ground. 

John Fitz-Cornelius bought the estate of Bridge- 
mount, situated in a wild and rugged country between 
Macroom and Milstreet^, and he also resided much at 
his wife's estate of Cashall. 

His second wife was Joanna, daughter of Mr. Hancock 
and widow of Thomas Murphy of Ban try. A Chancery 
suit, December 7th, 1724, shows that she had a fortune 

of about ;^2000. 

John Fitz-Cornelius died in 1736 and was buried in 
Ross Cathedral. He left no children by his second 
wife. His fourth son, Horatio, eventually became head 
of this branch of the family, and married Anne Richards. 
An amusing letter which he wrote to his wife from 
London is still in existence : — 

To Mrs. Anne Townsend to be left at Mr. John Baily's 
in Queen Street, Dublin. 

My dearest Life, ^^^y =4, i733- 

I am heartily sorry to hear by Frank Price's of the 15th 
inst. to me, you are indisposed with that confounded dis- 

' Now in the possession of the Rev. Ed. Mansell Townshend. 
^ Statist. Surv., II. 158. 


temper, and whether by sympathy or other I am just in the 
same state. . . . My life, it would be endless for me to un- 
dertake giving you a history of my voyage and journey, this 
much may suffice that I was seven days and nights I did not 
put off one screed, and all that owing to the number of pas- 
sengers of whom there were about a hundred. . . . 
I am my dearest Life and Soule 

Yours for ever and ever, 

Horatio Townshend. 

It is said that many of the Romanist gentry, thrown 
back to an idle and obscure life by the penal laws, fell 
into lawless habits, and the English Protestants who 
lived among them became too often assimilated to 
their neighbours ^- One of the most terribly common 
crimes was the abduction of Protestant ladies : and 
such was the sad fate of Horatio Townshend's sister 
Anne. Her step-mother's son, Thomas Murphy, was 
determined to obtain possession of her, and carrying 
her off, he kept her imprisoned in a cave in a lonely 
part of the country, till she consented to become his 
wife. Her family searched for her in vain. At last 
her youngest brother, Philip, came on some of the 
Murphy family, and drawing his pistol, threatened to 
fire if they did not disclose Anne's place of conceal- 
ment. One of the women seized his arm, the pistol 
went off. Murphy's brother fell, and Philip, believing 
that he was a murderer, fled. This new misfortune 
seems to have ended the pursuit. Thomas married 
the luckless Anne, the wounded man recovered, and 
in a thoroughly Irish fashion the innocent Philip was 
the most afraid of the consequences. Nothing could 
be heard of him, and at last his friends wrote to en- 
quire of their uncle Kingston in Barbadoes, to ask 

1 Hist. Kingdom of Ireland, Walpole, 372, 
P 2 


if he knew anything of the fugitive. After awhile 
the letter was answered by Philip himself from that 
island, and saying he was in such distress as to be 
tempted to return and take his chance of a trial. He 
however remained in Barbadoes, and died there un- 
married. In 1739 he signed a paper appointing his 
loving brothers Cornelius and Horatio his 'Atturnies' 
to manage any money he might receive at his father's 
death. It is witnessed by his great-uncle Kingston. 
Poor Anne had one daughter, Catherine, who seems to 
have inherited her father's disposition, for she eloped 
with her uncle's butler, Thomas Bennett of Bridg- 
mount, and selected for the performance the year that 
her uncle was High Sheriff! 

Cornelius, the only surviving son of Horatio Towns- 
hend, sold the estates of Bridgemount, having lost 
much money in attempted agricultural improvements. 
He died in England, leaving no children. Arthur 
Young in his Tour in Ireland, 1776-1779, mentions 
that about 1768 Cornelius Townsend, Esq., at Brokham 
(probably a mistake for Bridgemount) ' fixed two Sussex 
farmers to improve a stony mountain. These men, 
Messrs. Crampe and Johnson, bought very fine horses 
and brought over all their implements at great expense. 
Mr. Townsend built the most handsome houses, barns, 
&c., for them. The land was so stony that .£'100 was 
spent in clearing one field of eight acres. The men 
were ruined, and Mr. Townsend suffered considerably. 
To persist in improving such a spot was inexcusable 
in point of prudence, and the sure way to bring ridicule 
on English husbandry. Planting is the only proper 
improvement for such land.' 

It is said that some of Cornehus Townshend's land 
is now included in the estate of Lisselan ; and the 


remains of some farm buildings are still known as 
Townshend's Folly. 

With Cornelius ended in the male line the descend- 
ants of Colonel Richard Townesend's eighth son. 

His four sisters married, and two of them left chil- 
dren : Anne, who married, 1766, Richard Orpen of 
Ardtully, Co. Kerry (see Burke's Landed Gentry), and 
Elizabeth, who married, also in 1766, the Rev. Edward 
Synge Townsend, Rector of Clondrohid near Macroom ; 
she died at Kinsale, April 12, 1831, aged 89. For her 
descendants, see Table XIII. 

Daughters of Colonel Richard Townesend. 

An account has already been given ^ of one of Colonel 
Townesend's daughters, Catherine Gun. One, whose 
name has not been preserved, married John, son of 
Colonel Henry Owen and Margaret daughter of Sir 
William Piers of West Meath. Colonel Owen settled in 
Baltimore about 1650, and was cousin to the Lieutenant- 
Colonel Arnop mentioned by Orrery when raising the 
Militia in 1660. John Owen leaving no children, the 
estates passed to his sister Margaret, who married 
Henry Becher of Aughadown, of a family which inter- 
married so frequently with the Townshends that a sketch 
of it is inserted after Table VI. Another daughter, 
Mary, is believed to have married an Irish chieftain ; 
and a third, Dorothea, married Domenic Copinger. 
The Coppinger or Copinger family came from Den- 
mark as early as the tenth century. Sir Walter Copin- 
ger was settled at Baltimore shortly before its destruction 
by the Algerian pirates, but having quarrelled with the 
famous Fineen O'Driscoll left, and determined to build 

' Chapter v. 


a finer town for himself on the Httle Rowry River near 
Glandore, which he proposed to convert into a canal. 
He raised the walls of a splendid mansion there, but 
the rebellion of 1641 put an end to his projects, and 
only the ruins of Copinger's Court remain. He is 
said to have been a cruel and tyrannical lord to the 
peasantry, who still tell many legends about him, and 
show a beam projecting from the wall of the mansion 
which is said to have been used for a gallows. His 
grandson was also named Walter, and had a son 
Domenic, who married Dorothea Townesend. Domenic 
was a Romanist, seated at Rincolisky ; he died before 
the Protestant ascendency was re-established ; his will 
is dated May 8, 1688. In it he leaves his father sole 
guardian of his son James, and in consideration of a 
debt of sixty pounds, also leaves him his ' peanted 
brass beds, bedstead, linen and other household stuff, 
his sorle horse, watch and pistols.' The only mention 
of his wife is that she is to see the doctor paid, and 
give him the grey mare. Letters of administration are 
dated October 6, 1693. Old Walter and his second son 
were outlawed by William III for high treason in 1691, 
and so was young James. He petitioned the Chiches- 
ter House Commissioners, in whom were vested all 
estates forfeited for high treason in 1700, but in vain ; 
the lands of Copinger's Court, Clogan Castle, Rinco- 
lisky and Lissapole were lost for ever. This was the 
only branch of the Copingers that did not ultimately 
get back a great proportion of their estates. Domenic 
and Dorothea had three children, Mary, Walter, and 
James of Lissapole. The latter married Ann Youd of 
Cork, 1718, and had a son John, who settled in Brittany 
and then in Cornwall. This branch is now represented 
by W. A. Copinger, Esq., of the Priory, Manchester, 


andTynycoed Tower, Merioneth, author of the History 
of the Copinger family, whom I have to thank for the 
above information. Domenic Copinger leased land to 
Francis Townesend, and in 1684 Philip made a claim 
on it for his nephew Richard. Francis also signed a 
bond for Domenic's debts. Domenic leased land to 
' one Brian Townsend ' for ;^8o per annum for a term 
of thirty-one years, and Bryan's son Samuel eventually 
became owner of estates at Rincolisky, where he built 


(Table IX.) 

Notes on Table IX. 
By the Hon. Judge John Fitz-Henry Townshend, LL.D., D.L.C. 

John Townshend of Skirtagh was born May 26, 1696. 
He was called to the Irish Bar, but did not, I think, 
practise long at it. He married Katherine, daughter of 
Colonel James Barry of Rathcormac, as already men- 
tioned (Table III), and died before February, 1750. I 
never heard anything of the personal appearance or 
character of John Townshend of Skirtagh. His wife 
died December 20, 1754. They left three sons and four 
daughters ; one other son died young. 

Their eldest son, the Rev. Richard Townshend, became 
Rector and Vicar of Schull, diocese of Cork, November 
I, 1780 1. He had been ordained April 29, 1753, and 
held different clerical offices in the United Diocese 
of Cork and Ross. He married Susan, daughter of 
Colonel Alexander Gay ; she was widow of Thomas 
Wheatley, of Bristol. Her father Colonel Gay had 
married Elizabeth, only daughter of James Fitzgerald, 
Esq., and Elizabeth, daughter of Redmond Barry of 
Rathcormac and Mary Boyle (see notes, Table III). The 

' Brady, Records, I. 246. 

John Towneser 
b. May 26, 1 

widow of 

Wheat] V, 
lu. of Coi. 

y, ff. dau. 




= Willi nor = 
in Hoi d, of 




Jonas Morris 
of Barley Hill 

(Table I, and 
chap. ix. note). 


(2) Agnes, dau. of 

T. Somerville, 

of Castlehaven 

(Table II) 

ob. s. p. 

^■^- ^= Helen itherine, Horatio Thomas, — Agones, dau. of Richard Charles, 
of Johnpionel Vicar of Kilcoe, 1 Neville Somervilleand Philip. 

m. 1845, : Letitia Hung;erford, of " 


Dep. dg, of 
Cork, hurt 

\ note). 

d. 1891. 

the Island, g d. ofT. Helena. 

Somerville and M. Anna Maria 
Townsend, of Derry. 




Horace. Charles. Eleonor. 




\To/ace p. jib. 


Rev. Richard Townshend died May 17, 1793, leaving 
no children ^. 

Their second son, John Townshend, of Court Mac- 
sherry, Co. Cork, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Colonel Reddish, of London ; they had issue (besides 
a son James Townshend, who was called to the Bar, 
but died unmarried) two sons, John and Richard, and 
three daughters, Barbara, Dorothea, and Mary. The 
elder son John took orders April 23, 1775^, and next 
year became Curate of the Island, and from 1788 to 
1791 was Curate of Marmullane. He married Martha, 
daughter of Carre Williams, of Ashgrove, Cork, Esq., 
by whom he had a daughter Martha, who married 
Carre-Columbine WilHams, of the City of Cork, Esq. 
His arms, as given by Major Edward Townshend, 
were Sable, a lion rampant argent. 

The second son of John Townshend and Elizabeth 
Reddish married Dorothea, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Robinson of Coronea, a nice house near 
Skibbereen. These Robinsons claimed to be of the 
Rokeby family, and used the same arms. One of the 
Rokeby family was Primate of Ireland, which circum- 
stance may have brought over some of his Robinson 
relatives to eat of the crumbs which fell from his 
Grace's table. The Robinsons intermarried several 
times with the Whitehall branch of the Townshend 

The eldest son of Richard Townshend and Dorothea 
Robinson was John ; he was ordained in 1807, married 
AHcia, daughter of Sir Robert Warren of Crokestown, 
and had issue a son Richard, who married Miss Wil- 
kinson and. went to America with the family after the 
famine of 1846. I heard that he and they all perished 

1 Brady, Records, I. 246. 


of fever, but Dr. Edward Townshend informs me that 
a son of this Richard has called on him in Cork. 

On the death of the last Earl of Barrymore, the heir- 
general of that family was to be sought in the female 
descendants of Richard second Earl of Barrymore. It 
seems to me that Richard Townshend who married 
Miss Wilkinson was representative of one of the co- 
heirs of that nobleman, and was entitled to quarter the 
arms of Barry. 

I now go to Thomas, younger brother of the Rev. 
John Townshend. He was in the navy, and had the rank 
of Commander at his death. A worthy honest gentle- 
man, he had seen a good deal of service in the Baltic. 
He married Helena, daughter of John Freke of Bal- 
timore, Esq., and died April 28, 1848, much regretted. 
He had lived for many years at Smithville, near Castle 
Townshend, and was buried at the old burial-place south 
of Skibbereen. Mr. John Freke was a trusted friend 
of the late Lord Carbery, agent to Lord Carbery's 
estate in North Carbery, and Deputy Governor of the 
County Cork during the rebellion of 1798 \ Richard, 
the eldest son of Captain Thomas Townshend, obtained 
a fellowship in Trinity College, Dublin, and was or- 
dained in i860. He married Miss Barrett, a first cousin 
of his mother, and had no issue. He is described as a 
'splendid-looking man, one of the first mathematicians 
of his day, one of the kindest and most agreeable of 
men, and a model of what a Tutor and Professor should 
be.' A mathematical exhibition has been founded in his 
memory at Trinity College, Dubhn ^. 

The second son of Captain T. Townshend was James, 
of Baltimore, who married Mary, daughter of Samuel 

' Mrs. Pierrepont Mundy. 

^ The Very Rev. the Dean of Cloyne. 


Townshend of Derreny, second son of Samuel Towns- 
hend of Whitehall. ^ 

One of the remaining brothers went to Australia, and 
another to America, and became a County Court Judge 
in California. 

I return to the third son of John Townshend of 
Skirtagh— Philip, who married Mary Delap of London- 
derry. Their eldest son, Richard of Cononagh, was 
a Doctor of Medicine. His first wife was Helena, 
daughter of Richard Hungerford of Cahirmore ; she 
died without issue. His second wife was a daughter 
of Francis Jennison, of Union Hall, a member of a 
respectable family. These Jennisons were connected 
with the family of Morris of Benduff, but have since 
decayed. Mr. Francis Jennison of Castle Townshend 
married a daughter of WilHam Morris of Benduff. He 
had a daughter married to Mr. Potter, proprietor of 
the IVest Cork Eagle, and a son and two daughters 

Richard Townshend of Cononagh had two sons, 
both of whom died unmarried. The elder was the 
only descendant of Bryan Townshend ^ I ever heard 
of who was named after him. This unfortunate gen- 
tleman led a life of poverty and obscurity, and in his 
latter days was mainly supported by the humanity of 
my brother-in-law, the late Charles Armstrong, M.D. 
He died at Crookhaven, 1868. His sister Elizabeth 
married Edward Morris, son of William Morris of 
Benduff Castle, whose mother was Barbara Jennison. 
A further record of the Morris family will be found in 
the note to this chapter. 

' A son of Commissioner John Townshend was also named Bryan, and 
died of consumption, see page 222 and chapter vi. on the disuse of the 
name Bryan. 


^The second son of Philip Townshend and Mary 
Delap was John, born in 1764. He entered the navy 
about 1778, and saw much active service during the 
stirring times of the great French War. He was in 
the fleet which, under Admiral Rodney, pursued the 
French to the West Indies, and was under Elliot at 
the defence of Gibraltar, and at the taking of a rich 
prize returning home from South America. Promotion 
was quick in those days for young men of spirit, and at 
twenty years of age John Townshend was commanding 
the Bush revenue cutter. His little vessel was an- 
chored at Kingstown, and he was entertaining a party 
of friends at dinner in the cabin, when a signal was sent 
up from the Bailie Lighthouse at Howth that a French 
privateer was in sight. Orders were instantly given to 
man the boats and put the guests ashore ; but before 
this could be done a second signal shot up. Towns- 
hend refused to delay a minute longer : in vain did the 
guests beg him to wait ; they were hurried to sea by 
their impetuous host with the prospect of a livelier 
form of entertainment than that to which they had been 

One of the visitors was his brother-in-law Thomas, 
who told the story afterwards to John Sealy Towns- 
hend. 'My God, John! ' he said, 'as the danger grew 
greater he only grew the bolder.' The Bush over- 
hauled the French vessel, and grappling to her, boarded 
and took her, after a hard fight. Commander Towns- 
hend received the French captain's sword, and con- 
veyed his prize and his visitors in safety to Kingstown. 
For this service he received a substantial reward in 

' This portion of the qhapter is from notes by Mrs. Edward Townshend, 
grand-daughter of John Townshend. 


When the French fleet anchored in Bantry Bay in 
1798, and the news was brought in haste to Cork, not 
a ship of all those lying there would put to sea to carry 
the tidings to England ; no one dared face the gale 
which wrecked and scattered the French fleet, till John 
Townshend volunteered. Those who saw him set sail 
in the teeth of that north-easter never expected to see 
him again ; but he beat across to Bristol in safety, and 
received a letter of thanks from the Admiralty for the 
delivery of such important despatches. His gallant 
little vessel met her end in Galway Bay ; she struck on 
some rocks in a fearful snowstorm at nine o'clock in the 
evening. She partially sank, and then remained jammed 
with the masts above water, and the sailors took refuge 
in the rigging. In the hurry and darkness a little 
cabin boy was left behind, but the Commander went 
back for him and found him, and wrapping him in his 
own coat carried him up the mast and held him in his 
arms through the terrible night. But when the day 
dawned he found he was only holding the little body, 
the terrible cold had killed the boy. John Townshend 
often spoke of the sorrow of that day-break. 

Among other things that were thrown over to lighten 
the vessel was a box of books, which were afterwards 
recovered, among others a great Bible, in which John 
Townshend entered the names of all his children on 
the- water-stained fly-leaf. 

He next commanded the Minerva of seventy men. 
There are many stories preserved of his hand-to-hand 
fights when boarding ships, and of the sinking of the 
Ville de Paris, for John Townshend was a man of iron 
nerve and splendid physique. On account of his fine 
sight he was frequently chosen for night duty, but the 
strain of constantly using a night-glass injured his eyes. 


and he was obliged to retire comparatively early from 
the service. He then settled in Clonakilty, Co. Cork, 
and became Recorder of the town. When he was over 
eighty the authorities assumed that he must be dead, 
and as he did not receive his pension as usual, he 
applied for its continuance. He received a letter of 
apology from Sir Robert Peel himself, couched in the 
most comphmentary terms, thanking him for his ser- 
vices during his naval career, and assuring him such 
a mistake should not occur again ; and the veteran did 
live to receive it for several years after. 

When a young man John Townshend had adopted 
the infidel opinions that were common at the time, 
becoming a total unbeliever in the existence of any 
spiritual world, or of any survival of the soul after 
death. This was his state of mind when his wife died 
of t5^hus fever in 1817. His grand-daughter tells the 
following occurrence, which has never been questioned 
by his descendants : — 

' A year after his wife's death, on a bright summer evening, 
Commander Townshend was standing at his open hall door 
when he perceived a lady dressed in white coming across the 
grass towards the house. Remembering that there was to 
be a ball in the town that evening he paid no attention to the 
circumstance until she had advanced to within a couple of 
yards of him, when looking in her face he recognised his lost 
wife. As she continued to advance he walked backwards 
with his eyes fixed on her, until in this way they had reached 
the foot of the staircase. John Townshend walked past it, 
but when she reached it, she ascended it to the drawing 
room. In that room were sitting her eldest surviving son 
Richard Boyle Townshend, who was studying for his ex- 
aminations in Trinity College, Dublin, and a younger brother 
Brian, who was also reading : he was in bad health, and 
died of consumption not long after. Richard afterwards said 
he heard on the stairs outside the drawing-room door, which 


was slightly ajar, a noise like the rustling of wings. Think- 
ing some of the fowl had escaped from the yard and had got 
into the house he raised his eyes from his book and looked 
towards the door, when he saw a lady in white entering. His 
first thought was how could she manage to pass through such 
a small opening. He then looked at her face and recognised 
his mother. He was about to exclaim and touch his brother's 
arm, but remembering his bad health, he was afraid of the 
shock to him, and remained perfectly quiet, gazing at the 
visitor. She advanced into the room, where she remained 
a few minutes, he thought, and then returned to the door 
and passed out, as she had entered, through the narrow 
opening. It is said that a number of workmen who were 
waiting in a room of the hall, to be paid their wages, as it 
was Saturday evening, saw and recognised her, both when 
going upstairs and when she returned and went out at the 
hall door.' 

From that time Commander Townshend's religious 
opinions underwent a complete change, so that his 
relations and friends beheved that it was for this object 
that she was permitted to return and appear to him. 

John and Eleanor Townshend had been married on 
the gth of February, 1788. He died the 5th of March, 

The eldest of their sons who hved to grow up was 
Richard Boyle, born January 27, 1795. He entered 
the Church, and became Rector of Abbeystrewry. He 
was a most saintly man, devoted to the care of his poor. 
During the potato famine of 1847 he was examined 
before Parliament on the causes of the distress, and 
went through England collecting subscriptions for the 
sufferers. Lord Dufferin ^ described visiting Skibbereen 
at that time and finding Mrs. Townshend sewing 
shrouds, with two maidservants lying dead of typhus in 

' From Oxford to Skibbereen. By Lord Dufferin and the Hon. G. T. 


the house. Richard Boyle Townshend established a 
temporary hospital in Skibbereen, and worked night 
and day among his people, till he caught the famine 
fever and literally died for those he was helping. All 
classes and creeds loved him, and mourned for him, 
and he was followed forty miles to his grave by several 
Roman Cathohc priests at the head of their flocks. 

His second brother was John Sealy, who became a 
barrister in Dublin. He was born June 25, 1805, and 
died April 27, 1883. He, Hke his brother, was deeply 
religious ; he was also a man of most studious tastes 
and habits, employing his leisure hours in accumulating 
stores of information on all imaginable subjects, re- 
ligious, scientific, or historical. 

The greater part of our information about Colonel 
Richard Townesend is due to the industry of John 
Sealy Townshend, who left elaborate manuscript notes 
on his life. His legal knowledge and accuracy and 
experience in weighing evidence of course made him a 
most valuable authority on the subject. 

He took a great interest in the study of the evidences 
of Christianity. A story goes, that he once by chance 
entered an infidel lecture-hall in London, and after 
listening to the speaker for a short time, was unable 
to stand the nonsense he heard, and hissed. The 
audience got excited, and carried him bodily up 
on the platform to argue the matter out. Nothing 
could have pleased John Sealy better, though he said 
he was never so astounded as at the position he found 
himself in, but the poor lecturer had not suspected that 
he would have to do with a student at the Bar ; he soon 
found himself no match for John Sealy, either in learn- 
ing or in logical power, and was fairly argued down, so 
he covered his retreat by promising to meet him again 


the following week and entirely confute him. The 
audience had been so well entertained that they chaired 
the victor round the room, and all assembled to hear 
the end of the debate the next week. John Sealy had 
spent the intervening time in making notes for his dis- 
cussion at the British Museum, but the lecturer had 
had enough of it and never came back to meet his Irish 

These very notes formed the basis of a pamphlet 
which John Sealy afterwards published against Bishop 
Colenso's views on the Pentateuch, which the Saturday 
Review, among others, said was one of the best answers 
written. He married Judith, daughter of Becher Flem- 
ing of New Court ^ and his wife Judith Somerville. 
He left one daughter, Judith, married in 1864 to Edward 
Townshend, no,w (1891) Professor of Engineering and 
Register of Queen's College, Galway^. Their eldest 
son Edwin entered Trinity College, Dublin, in 1885, 
B.A. in 1889. The second, John, obtained an entrance 
exhibition to Dublin University and a mathematical 
scholarship, and also at his degree examination he 
gained the first moderatorship in mathematics and 
second in experimental physics, thus gaining a student- 
ship. He also gained two gold medals. 

There is a story told of a clergyman belonging to 
this branch of the Townshend family — although which 
particular member he was is not said. It was in the 
last century, when clergymen wore gowns as their 
ordinary dress, and Mr. Townshend was riding home 
one evening when a man insulted him. Mr. Townshend 
sprang from his horse, and throwing down his gown, 
he cried, ' Lie thou there, Divinity, till I make thine 

' See Note A, on Fleming family, Chap. xi. 
" See Table XIII, Chapter xii, 



enemies thy footstool,' and then knocked the man 

Note A, on Morris of Benduff. 

This family have intermarried so frequently with 
that of Townshend, that some account of their mansion 
and pedigree will not be out of place. 

Benduff or Castle Salem was a Norman fortress 
situated in a secluded valley about a mile from Ross- 
carbery. Some say it was built by the O'Donovan 
family, others that Katherine, daughter of the eighth 
Earl of Desmond, founded the castle of the ' Black 
Peak,' and still haunts it as the 'Black Lady.' The 
building was one of great strength, with walls eleven 
feet thick, and was surrounded by a beautiful oak wood 
and a large deer-park, whose ruined walls are still 
visible. The pleasure-grounds were laid out in the 
old Dutch style, with ponds and little islands and 
clipped yew-trees, and so sheltered was the situation 
that fig-trees flourished in the open air. 

Dr. Donovan ^ says the first of the Morris family 
who owned Benduff was Major Apollo Morris, an 
officer in Cromwell's army. He obtained a grant 
of the estate, and on the Restoration was fortunate 
enough to have the grant confirmed through the in- 
terest of a relative who was private secretary to the 

A portrait of Cromwell was preserved at Benduff, — 
a stern figure in complete armour, but bareheaded. 

The genealogist, Mr. D. O'C. Fisher, gave a pedigree 
to Judge Townshend, which calls Cromwell's officer 

' Sketches in Carbery, D. Donovan, M.D., p. 213. 


Captain William Morris. He married Joyce, daughter 
and co-heir of his fellow-soldier, Captain John Bowdler 
of Condor. Her sister Mary was wife of John Fitz- 
Cornelius Townshend. Captain Morris became a 
quaker in 1675, and died 1680, leaving a son, Fortu- 
natus, who married, 1682, Elizabeth Morris. The names 
of her parents are not given, but her arms are the 
same as those of Morris of Benduff. William Morris, 
the son of Fortunatus, was an intimate friend and cor- 
respondent of William Penn. He married Dorothy 
Leckey of Ballyhealy, whose family still exists in 
County Carlow. He became a member of the Church 
of England, and his descendants continued to belong 
to it. But the ancient quaker burying-ground is still 
shown at Benduff, and the simple graves, with plain 
head and foot-stones, facing north and south, which 
the ' Friends ' used to make, no monuments being al- 
lowed by that sect. Around the graveyard is a grove 
of laurel-trees, so large that an old established colony 
of rooks live in them. It was such a favourite place 
of burial that even from Cork the Quakers brought 
their dead to lie under the shade of the old castle. 
But when William Morris died, and a very simple 
rude tomb was erected to his memory, the Quakers 
were so shocked at this breach of their customs that 
they never buried in that ground again. 

The sons of William Morris, William and Jonas, 
married daughters of John Townshend of Skirtagh^ 
Jonas Morris had a son Abraham, whose fine house 
and grounds at Dunkettle are described in the Sta- 
tistical Survey of Co. Cork. He married Thomasine, 
daughter of W. Connor of Connorsville, and had a 
daughter, Catherine, who married Horatio Townshend 

' Table IX, Chapter ix, see also p. 219. 


(Table XIII). All the family papers were preserved at 
BendufiF till the late William Morris placed them in 
the hands of a bookseller in Cork with a view to 
publication. The bookseller failed, and the papers 
were lost^- 

' Carbery Sketches, Donovan. 

Borit 1689 or j6q2 

po-om n 7iimiatiire nt WhitcJiall 


(Table X.) 

Samuel, fifth son of Bryan Townsend, settled at 
Rincolisky on Roaring Water Bay. The remains of 
the fortified wall that surrounded his house, Whitehall, 
still stand there, looking over the lonely bay towards 
Cape Clear. Above on the heights are the remains 
of a castle built by the O'Driscolls ^ when they were 
lords of the country, and that passed from their hands 
into those of the Copingers, for Rincolisky was one 
of the estates forfeited in 1690 by the unlucky young 
James Copinger, Colonel Townesend's Roman Catholic 

As in many other old houses there is a story of an 
underground passage, which is said to connect White- 
hall with the ruined castle. There is also a legend 
that when one of the family tried to explore it, his 
two negro servant boys ran eagerly on in front and 
were lost in the darkness. The rest of the party found 
the passage grow more and more stifling, and shouted 
to the boys to come back, but in vain. They were 
not answered and, overpowered by the foul air, they 
hurried back to the entrance and the boys were never 
seen again. So after that the passage was closed up. 

' Smith's Hist. Co. Cork. 


Samuel Townshend was born Sept. 23, 1689 or 1692 ^. 
He became a freeman of Clonakilty, 1717, High 
Sheriff, 1742, and died 1759. He married Dorothea, 
daughter of Sir Edward Mansell of Iscoed, Carmarthen, 
Bart. The Mansell family came to England at the 
Conquest, and from them descended Sir Rhys Mansell, 
who died 1589. He was father to Sir Edward who 
married Anne, daughter of Henry Earl of Dorchester, 
and by her had Sir Frances Mansel, created Baronet 
in 1621, who married Catherine, daughter and co-heir 
of Henry Morgan of Muddlescombe. Their son. Sir 
Anthony, fell at Newbury fighting on the Royalist 
side, and was father to the Sir Edward Mansell first 

What strange memories must have haunted that 
lonely house of Whitehall, among its wind-swept trees, 
when its master, the grandson of a ParHamentarian 
officer, married to the grand-daughter of a man who 
died for King Charles, was living on the property for- 
feited by their kinsman for his fidelity to King James ! 

Samuel Townshend travelled in Italy, and his minia- 
ture painted there makes him look a very Sir Charles 
Grandison, with large blue eyes and short proud upper 
lip, very splendid in blue velvet coat and powdered 
wig. He was a man of taste and culture, and altered 
his house in the Italian style, adding a handsome 
double staircase and pilasters painted to imitate marble. 

When his third son Samuel was entering the army, 
Samuel Townshend wrote him the following farewell 
letter^, which, it is pleasant to see, the young man 
preserved with affectionate care. 

' From a list of Bryan Townshend's children on the blank leaf of The 
Christian Pattern, 1707- 

' The original still is in the possession of Mrs. John Townshend, widow 
of Samuel Townshend's great grandson. Table XIII. 


My dear Sam, 

We are now parting for a time, but I hope we shall have a 
happy meeting againe and as much satisfaction in it as this 
world can afford. My anxiety will be great for you, and you 
will seldom or ever be absent from my thoughts. I know you 
soe well that I am persuaded your conduct will be as happy 
and as well as possible, and that your usual sobriety and 
goodness will ever subsist with you, however as 'tis an ease 
to my mind at parting to repeat something to you that I have 
often observed to you before, tho' I am obliged to doe it 
in a hurry I would not omit it. First then lett your strictest 
Duty to God be your constant care we can hope for noe 
Blessing or happyness but through the Almighty. This 
world is transient and triffling filled with troubles and un- 
certainty, we must however doe the best we can in it, in the 
most prudent and virtuous mani^. A Blessed Eternity is 
what we must have the greatest Regard to, and indeed is the 
only thing worth our anxiety and care. 

Next to your Duty to God, that of your Duty to your King 
and Country you are not to forgett. 

Be courteous and obliging to Every Body and never on any 
passion or hurry in your thoughts or expressions. 

Consider seriously in everything you Doe and every steppe 
you take that you may by that means always act with pru- 
dence and Discretion, and not hurry your selfe into anything 
that may not afterwards answer to your satisfaction. 

Be carefull to read dilligently and to gett the best instruc- 
tion you can in your intended profession. When you think 
you can read in ye Country I think Captain Gwynne' at 
Upham in Hampshire will be a convenient place where you 
may be assured of a sincere welcome. Trimsaran ' I think 
in ye same way of, but you will have more Company there 
than at Upham however I would have you use both places 
as your discretion will Direct you. 

Be punctual in your Expenses, but dont want whatever is 

' Captain Gwyn was married to Eliz. daughter of Richard Townshend of 
Castle Townshend. Table L 

2 Trimsaran, Sir Edward Hansel's seat, S. Wales. 


necessary for a gentleman. You pritty well know my situa- 
tion and circumstances and that I shall answer your calls 
while I am able for I begrudge you nothing. You are cen- 
tred in my heart and from your Conduct and behaviour with 
virtue Honour and discretion will be placed the greatest 
Happyness I can have in life. I am Hurryd soe I am forced 
to conclude. May the Great God always bless and preserve 
you, and have you in his keeping. Write often, never omitt 
a month at a time at most. 

Be carefuU in your Choice of company, keep none that are 
wicked or wild or of loose bad characters for such bring dis- 
credit and lead a man into misfortunes. 

Samuel Townshend proved himself u^orthy of his 
father's tender anxiety. He entered the army in 1759 
in Drogheda's Light Horse, since named the i8th 
Hussars, then being raised by Charles Earl of Dro- 
gheda. He was Aide-de-camp to his Majesty George III 
during the memorable riots of 1780, and wsls afterwards 
Commandant at Chatham and Inspector-General. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of a Mr. Aikenhead of 
Lanark, and widow of Gilbert Ford, Attorney-General 
of Jamaica, and died at 23 Wimpole Street, in May, 
1794. His body was lying in the house when the 
illuminations took place in honour of Lord Howe's 
victory of the ist of June. He was buried in St. 
Martin's Church. His portrait in full uniform is at 

His only daughter, Elizabeth Trelawney^, was a 
beautiful and accomplished girl, and being an excel- 
lent musician, was often asked to play to King George. 
General Townshend's elder brother, Edward Mansell, 
inherited the estates of Whitehall. He was known in 
the family as ' Splendid Ned.' His portrait is at White- 
hall in a brown coat and red waistcoat. 

' She married Horatio Townshend, Table XIII. 


His eldest son, Samuel, is fully described in the fol- 
lowing account given by his grandson, Samuel Nugent 
Townshend. He is also remembered by Judge Town- 
shend as ' an agreeable and accomplished gentleman ' ; 
and his kinsman, Horace of Derry, says\ 'When 
hounds became a subject of heavy taxation, Samuel 
Townsend, Esq., of Whitehall, wisely exchanged the 
pleasures of the chase for those of the garden. This 
he superintends himself with care as well as con amove, 
and for, I believe, a smaller expense than that of dogs, 
hunters and their appendages, finds a constant source 
of very substantial gratification. His grapes in parti- 
cular exceed any I have seen both in size and flavour.' 
And in another place is mentioned a sort of seaweed 
which is an excellent manure for potatoes and found 
near 'The estate of Samuel Townshend, one of the 
few gentlemen in that quarter who have paid much 
attention to agricultural improvement^.' 

townsends, townshends, or townesendes of 

By Samuel Nugent Townshend. 

The Whitehall property having gone in the female 
line its family monuments and archives, save as recorded 
in the last edition but one of Burke's Landed Gentry ^, 
appear to have absolutely vanished, and though now 
the lineal head of the family, I can only afford such 
information as was verbally given me by my father, who 
was born in 1800, and was a man of most accurate and 

' Satist. Surv., Co. Cork, ii. 113. ^ Statist. Surv., Co. Cork, i. 301. 

' In consequence of the Whitehall Estate having gone in the female line, 
Burke has now merged that house ancestry in Townshend of Castletowns- 
hend. Formerly it was given under its own heading. 


detailed memory. Edward, ' Splendid Ned,' his grand- 
father, was a great horse breeder and agriculturist in 
his later years. Eariier, viz. from October 15, 1756, as 
' Adjutant of Militia Dragoons in the County of Corke,' 
commanded by Richard Townsend, Esq., he had plenty 
of work of a non-agricultural nature to attend to, as 
anyone reading the Irish history of that day can easily 
enough see. On his eldest son's marriage he as- 
signed Whitehall and all his property to him, reserving 
a life annuity. This son — my grandfather — Samuel, 
was early in life sent to Oxford, and thence on the Grand 
Tour regardless of expense, and with the most aristo- 
cratic youth of the day. He was naturally gifted, and 
an accomplished musician. The reverse of his father, 
he did nothing to improve the estate, and spent much 
time in England, often in Dublin, always a grand Juror 
in Cork, and in 1798 High Sheriff of the County. This 
was the year of the Rebellion, and large quantities of 
troops and Militia Dragoons were placed at his disposal. 
These wherever employed were quartered on the in- 
habitants and ate them into subjection. In his own 
parish of Aughadown, to avoid the ruin of the tenantry, 
who were very prosperous, and largely consisted of 
CromweUian soldiers' descendants, he, together with the 
Parish Priest and Protestant Rector, a combination 
previously unheard of, decided to guarantee the peace 
of the parish, and at the Priest's request he, the High 
Sheriff, addressed in the Chapel Yard the Catholic 
Congregation, and told them of the guarantee. 

No troops therefore were quartered in Aughadown, 
and there was no disturbance there. After the year of 
my grandfather's Shrievalty expired, Lord Shannon 
intimated to him that the Lord Lieutenant was willing 
to knight him. My grandfather, as most country gentle- 


men then, having a profound contempt for a title almost 
exclusively given to the Castle tradesmen and City 
Aldermen, replied with a hidden sarcasm aping humility 
' that he was unaware of his having done anything to 
deserve such an offer from the Irish government.' 
Passing years did not conquer his taste for London 
life, and after the Peninsular War he repaired to the 
metropohs for a long visit, leaving his wife and large 
family at Whitehall. 

Up to this time none of the female heads of the house 
appear to have been in any way conspicuous, but this 
Mrs. Townsend, a Miss Baldwin of Curavody, on the 
first and only occasion she got, certainly was so. 

Whitehall was then an old three-storied house, square 
and utterly unimposing. The rooms were not large, 
the windows were small, and her ten children probably 
uncomfortably filled them. 

The lady rose to the first occasion on which she 
probably ever had a chance to assert herself inde- 
pendently of her brilliant and versatile husband. He 
was well across the seas, and she lost no time in 
sending for an architect, and with almost magic swift- 
ness there rose to her order a series of noble rooms, 
forming a new front to the old house, and rendering it 
quite unrecognisable. Samuel Townsend duly returned 
home, and his astonishment is said to have been more 
than paralleled by his disgust at the magnitude of the 
builder's bills. That bill, £i'joo, was never paid, and 
descended as a charge with the unentailed property to 
the younger branch. 

However, Whitehall was now too much of a mansion 
not to be put to higher social uses than of old, and 
thither came often the neighbouring Earls of Bantry 
and Kingston, and Lord Audley, and sometimes the 


Earls of Shannon and Bandon, and from time to time 
potentates from afar off, so that the cost of the mansion 
as it then stood was as nought to the keeping of it up 
as it then was. After his wife's death my grandfather 
decided to retrench somewhat by letting Whitehall to 
Lord Audley, and go abroad for a season, but this 
retrenchment was rather a disappointment, for the trip 
abroad cost more than was anticipated on the one hand, 
and Lord Audley never paid a penny of rent. Indeed 
I think his Lordship went into liquidation just as my 
grandfather returned. 

The Whiteboy disturbance was the last thing that 
brought my grandfather to the front before — after many 
quiet years of retirement at Whitehall, retirement 
only broken by the semi-annual grand juries in Cork — 
he passed away in that city. These Whiteboy out- 
breaks in his vicinity he however coped with and sup- 
pressed with all his old skilful ability. The old parish 
priest had passed away, and his successor probably 
could not, if he would, join in any guarantee with the 
squire and the parson that would effectively protect 
life and property. The priest, an old St. Omer one, 
cursed the Whiteboys, and the only effect was that the 
Whiteboys cursed the priest, so my grandfather, though 
determined not to have his neighbours' substance eaten 
up by soldiers, saw that something even stronger than 
ecclesiastical anathema must be put in force. 

He applied to Dublin Castle for permission to raise 
a troop of Yeomanry Cavalry, and for arms for the 
troop. The permission promptly came, and with it a 
Commission appointing my grandfather its Captain- 
Commandant, and another appointing his second son, 
my father, Adjutant. The arms, however, were a very 
long time indeed in arriving. Perpetual patrols at all 


hours for nearly two years perfectly restored quiet, and 
the government of the day, Uke the governments of 
many a day since and before, thinking that Ireland was 
at last permanently quiet disbanded the yeomanry. A 
more mischievous and uncalled-for action towards a 
loyal force in Ireland, that then cost them actually 
nothing and would have saved the regulars much worry 
and the exchequer much expense, was never done. 
My grandfather was thunderstruck and disgusted, but 
he declined to make any protest, and ordered his tried 
and trusty men to turn in their arms to him at 

Scarcely was it known that the yeomanry were dis- 
banded than the whole condition of the West Riding 
became so unsettled, that in response to repeated 
applications to the officer commanding in Cork to send 
an escort to receive these arms, the only replies were 
that an escort sufficiently large to be quite safe could 
not be spared from Bandon. Application was then made 
to the Admiralty to the same effect, but with no better 
result. Then it was that my grandfather's eldest son 
Edward had completed his first racing yacht, the Blonde 
of 30 tons, and the two elder sons being in a very great 
state of anxiety in consequence of the ever-recurring 
rumours of incendiarism and forcible robbery of this 
large stand of arms from Whitehall, and well knowing 
their father would risk and lose his life in defence of his 
trust, petitioned the Admiralty or War Office to permit 
the shipment to the arsenal at Cove of the arms in the 
Blonde. Promptly the reply came back that the law 
prohibited arms being shipped in any vessels other 
than Her Majesty's ships, and that the Blonde would 
be confiscated if she attempted to ship any of the arms. 

Irritated to the quick by such extraordinary treat- 


ment, for these applications extended over years, and 
stung by new apprehensions of a cruel raid on his 
father's home, my father as adjutant, in whose legal 
custody these arms were, called a few of his men 
together at midnight, and placing the arms in carts, 
without any undue solemnity, drove them to the Castle 
cliflf and shot them bodily into the Atlantic. 

Strangely enough, the War Office never asked a 
question as to these arms, though my father was quite 
certain he would be severely punished instead of praised 
for having adopted the only practicable course to 
prevent the yeomanry armament from falhng into 
mischievous and disloyal hands. Never probably has 
a yeomanry cavalry equipment come to such an un- 
timely end. My grandfather was told nothing of the 
matter then, if ever. His name was one of those on 
the first list of Deputy Lieutenants appointed in Ireland, 
but he only survived this appointment ^ three years. 

During the latter years of his life his eldest son 
Edward, although chiefly a bookworm and student, and 
also a B. N. C. Oxford man, had been designing and 
building, and my father been racing for him, yacht after 
yacht, commencing with the Blonde 30 tons, and ending 
with the Medina 48 tons. These yachts carried my 
uncle's flag, usually a winning one, all round the British 
coast, and amongst other valuable prizes a very unique 
salver, won in the Isle of Man regatta, is now at 
Whitehall. My uncle however after he had succeeded 
to the estate again buried himself in his books up to 
his last days at Whitehall. 

Speaking of my Uncle Edward, it might be interest- 
ing to note that while the Royal Cork Yacht Club, the 
oldest in existence, was very badly supported and could 

' This D. L. Commission is signed by the Earl of Shannon, Feb. i8, 1832. 



(Tables XI and XII.) 

Philip Townsend was born August 5, 1700, and oa 
April 28, 1733, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Hungerford, of the Island, and Susanna Becher^. Mr. 
Hungerford died early, and his widow was re-married 
to Sampson Jarvis of Braad, so Philip's wedding took 
place at Braad Church, whose ruins are still seen 
above the trees of Myros Wood. The service was 
read by Philip's favourite brother Horace, who married 
another ofthe daughters of Thomas Hungerford, making 
a double link of affection. 

Thomas Hungerford of Inchydony, the Island that 
lies at the mouth of Clonakilty Bay, was the son of 
Richard Hungerford, and Mary More, daughter of the 
Sir Emmanuel More who so narrowly escaped the pains 
of high treason for being too good a Protestant in 1686 1 
Richard Hungerford's brother Thomas had married 
Barbara Townshend of Castle Townshend, his first 
cousin through the Synges. Richard Hungerford was 
called ' cousin' in the will of John Hungerford of Hun- 
gerford in 1729. The family was seated for many 
generations at Farley Castle in Somerset, and Richard's 
father had come to Ireland in 1647 ^. 

' See Chapter viii, Table VI. '' See Chapter v. ^ See p. 36. 


Susanna Becher, the mother of Captain PhiHp Town- 
send's wife, had four gold pieces of Philip and Mary that 
were dug up on Shirkin Island, near the residence of 
her father, Colonel Thomas Becher. The coins were 
handed down in the female line ; she left them first to 
her daughters who married Philip and Horatio Town- 
send. Elizabeth Townsend left hers to her daughters 
Susanna French and Mary Somerville. Mary Townsend 
left hers to her daughters Susan Meade and Mary New- 
man. Susan Meade having no children bequeathed her 
piece to her niece Mary Synge Townsend, and from her 
it passed to her nephew, Major Edward Townsend. 

PhiHp Townsend inherited Derry, Rosscarbery, from 
his father Bryan (who had bought it in 1686); his 
youngest son Samuel, who died in infancy, was born 
there in 1745. 

Philip Townsend was captain in General O'Farrel's 
regiment, the 22nd, during the struggle between Eng- 
land and France for the supremacy in North America. 

His regiment embarked at Cork. Captain Town- 
send took his youngest son, Tom, with him as a volun- 
teer, the eldest, Dick, was studying medicine, and Mrs. 
Townsend and the younger children were left in the 
care of Horace Townsend, rector of Coolmona, who 
had married Mary Hungerford, sister of Philip's wife 

The beautifully written letters from Captain Philip to 
his brother Horace and his ' dearest dear Bess ' have 
been carefully preserved, but space will only allow of 
extracts being given ; he constantly sends messages to 
Jack Townsend at Castletown, •'my brother Sam,' Jack 
Townsend at Mardyke, and Barbara, who seems to 
have been one of his most regular correspondents. 

To Mrs. Elizabeth Townsend. 

My dearest dear Life, New York, Feb. II, 1757- 

After a long tedious passage of almost fourteen weeks and 
a great deal of bad weather we (God be praised) arrived safe 
Wednesday last, we were separated from our Fleet and in- 
deed ye whole Fleet separated from ye commadore in about 
a week after we sailed so that no two ships came in together 
or were at all in company on the passage. There are still 
five of our ships not arrived, two of which are at Philadelphia 
and one att Virginia, one of them on board which was German 
officers and draughts was taken by a french man of war, 
two of ye German officers volunteering went to France and 
carried with them 60 of ye draughts. The ship and the Rest 
were Ransomed for five hundred pounds. The ship was in 
great distress before she met with ye French man having 
lost two of her masts and was very laky with four foot of 
water in her hold. . . . One of the ships in which Col. Rollo 
was, had ye good fortune to take a French ship and retake 
an Enghsh one that had been a long time in the hands of ye 
French. Those of our regiment that arrived before us are 
quartered about this place in little vilages as I shall be next 
week. This town is very large with spacious streets and 
buildings, but yett it does not seem populous as might be 
expected from ye space it stands on. Some here tell me 
it is as large as Cork, but in my apprehension it is not two 
thirds of Cork. Every thing here is very dear but provisions 
them I think very cheap. 

Colonel Rollo has been extremely kind in respect of Tom, 
before I came here he recommended him to Lord Loudon 
our Commander in Chief for a pair of colours in our regiment 
and the better to recommend him told his lordship he carried 
arms in our regiment, and when he landed to show he did, 
made him march with a soldier's coat on from the ships to 
his quarters. So Tom is now a soldier with daily pay and 
an allowance of provisions daily. He is in very good health 
and seems now very well pleased tho' he was not so at 
first. . . . 


You now will perhaps expect I should tell you some thing 
of your poor old Pett, at first I was very sick for three or four 
days, after that I grew better but still sick but I could eat 
and crawl on deck in a fine day, in this way I continued 
about a month still growing sicker as the ship altered her 
manner of sailing, but in five or six weeks I conquered all 
and have since been in as good health as ever I was in my 
life, and God be praised I want nothing but returning to my 
heart's delight again, and I shall never have true comfort or 
satisfaction until I do. Could I but hear from you I should 
think myself as happy as I can be at this distance from you, 
and I trust God as He has delivered me from this very dan- 
gerous passage at this season of the year He will also protect 
and send me safe back to the arms of my dearest dear life, 
till which I can have no real comfort or satisfaction.' 

He adds in a postscript — 

Our fresh provisions held out bravely (during the voyage) 
and better butter I never tasted than that sent me by Horace. 

East Chester, March 3, 1757. 

. . . The winter has been severely bad, the inhabitants 
say they have not for years past had so severe a winter and 
indeed in ye great frost ye weather was not half so cold as 
some days I have met with here. . . . The country here about 
is as rough almost as ours in respect of stones and hills much 
like that land about Drimoleague Church. The cattle much 
such as ye Carbury cattle, ye horses ye same as ye punch nags 
we formerly had in Ireland but large, and all of them swift 
pacers. There are variety of animals of ye wild kind but no 
hares. Rabbitts, Patriges and Quail in good plenty each 
kind as big again as those of ours. The people in this place 
are all estated men. Descendants of English and the' the 
country is pritty thick inhabited they have not hands for 
labour, for they are above working for any one but them- 
selves which is a great detriment to them, and if any will 
stoop as some doe who are reduced they expect ye same 
treatment as any of ye family and to sitt at ye table. This 
is the mischief of these small estates as no one here, I mean 
in this neighbourhood, haveing above 500 acres and some 

R 2 


not more than 30 and each wooded tho' not near so well as 
some other parts of the country. They have no notion of 
any other manure than dung, no hmestone near them. What 
lime they use for their houses which are mostly wood, is 
oyster shells which they have in great abundance but very 
insipid, and not at all like ours in taste. Further inland I 
am told there is charming fine country as any in ye world, 
whence they supply New York with cattle and very fine 
bullocks of about 5 to 7 hundred. The inhabitants about 
New York are mostly Descendants of Dutch this being 
originally a Dutch settlement and given in exchange for 
Surinam. . . . The people seem to me to be in a disponding 
way from ye many ill successes they have met with which 
they think owing to corruption, and instead of a bold enter- 
prising people as we always thought them they seem rather 
indolent and slothful, and though they, every government 
gives a small number of men each campaigne, yett they goe 
with unwillingness to defend their own properties. Great 
complaints are made of Shirley here, of his not marching 
up to Braddock with his and Pepperil's regiments though 
Braddock waited a fortnight for him. Dunbarr too is con- 
demned for delaying 10 days with his regiment. These 
delays they say caused Braddock's misfortune. . . . These 
are all different governments, and ye currency quite different 
in every one of them. The money is all Spanish very like 
English and the piece that passes here only for eight shillings 
(a dollar) goes for pounds in the next government which I 
imagine a great detriment to trade besides so many different 
governments, different laws and customs breeds discontent 
and great confusion and I think this country will never be 
happy till it is under one and ye same government or legis- 
lature and such a one as we have in Ireland would in my 
apprehension soon make them a flourishing people who by 
having a good man for a viceroy would always make them 
firm to the constitution which I fear many of them are nott 
at this time. They are so situated that they might with in- 
dustry (which I think they want greatly) have every necessary 
of life. They have fruits in abundance in a manner wild, as 
fine apples as you would wish there are planted, peaches 


grapes and cherries wild and I am told ye grapes are very 
luscious but no attempt has ever been to make wine of them, 
their only drink is cyder and punch which last they drink in 
ye morning as freely as' in Europe in ye afternoon but small. 
New York is a large town. I believe half or near it of Cork. 
The houses for the most part timber which makes them sub- 
ject to fire. . . . There are now ships going with flower to 
Cork, Dublin, Derry and many parts of Great Britain and it 
is said there is great scarcity there but I hope its not so bad 

as is said here, it is too soon to feel such wants Direct 

your letters to be forwarded by Mr. Hugh Wallace merchant 
in New York, there are four paquet boats going constantly 
from London to New York. — God bless you all and send me 
safe to you for I can have no comfort till that happens. 

Yr owne 

P. T. 

To his brother Horatio. 

Fort Herekheimer, March i, 1758. 

. . . The highlanders are all arrived. I have not yett seen 
one of them. I must here tell you a remark ye Indians made 
when they saw ye first highland regiment which was that they 
had long lost one of their tribes and were sure this was it for 
ye Indian dress is something like theirs, they wear stockings 
and shoes of deerskin, a shirt and a Blankett, no Breeches. 
... I was very uneasy at not hearing from you, and tho' 
I gave no great credit to dreams, yet I had some of both you 
and my dear Bess that made me in my retired quarters very 

I suppose my brother Sam has given you a full account 
as I desired him of ye melancholy affair here the day or two 
after I wrote to my Bess lest he has not I will. I am quar- 
tered here in a small Frontier Fort on ye Mohock River, 
this place is called ye German Flats from ye very fine flat 
land by ye River inhabited by ye descendants of high ger- 
mans settled here about 55 years ago, about five or six days 
after I came here a body of French or Indians to ye number 
of 350 (but till all was over I was informed 800) fell upon the 
inhabitants of a flat on ye Other side of the River from me, 


and above a mile and a half above me, burned their houses 
and Barns, killed twelve of them and carryed away about loo 
prisoners and destroyed their stock. It is supposed ye loss 
amounted to £40,000. All this in my sight without my being 
able to give the least assistance. . . . On Sunday last was 
sevenights another small party sett a House and Barn on 
fire just opposite to me and miserably butchered four young 
ladds and a girle, ye snow was so deep that we could not get 
over to them for want of snow shoes, a contrivance to walk 
without sinking in ye snow. These little rapines and crueltys 
are ye chief advantage they take, which are considered among 
ye Indians as very extraordinary exploits. 

To Mrs. Elizabeth Townsend. 

From aboard the Thornton Transport, New York, April 19, 1758. 

... I told him of the mischief done by the Indians and 
more cruel French. I cannot help calling them so, as by all 
accounts the Indians never used such cruelty untill instructed 
by them. 

... I fear (the Indians) are secretly in our enemy's in- 
terest as they leave no stone unturned to gain them over. 
This they doe by large presents but most of all by their 
missionaries to whom they pay a sort of adoration whilst 
we almost totally neglect them, they are a people of strong 
natural parts and make very shrewd remarks upon us and 
our neglect of religion, and by all I can gather if proper care 
were taken by sending persons among them to instruct them 
in ye principals of ye Christian religion which they all pro- 
fess it would greatly redound to ye English interest. . . . 

Poor Tom studies to lessen my expense and avoid every 
thing that might run him into it so much that I am sometimes 
obliged to force him among ye young gentlemen of the regi- 
ment, all of whom court his company and I think have very 
good regard for him. He has att last gott a commission and 
Col. Rollo who is very good to him and to whom I think I 
am alone obliged for his preferment has appointed him to 
my company, but while he is youngest Ensign he'll have no 
pay but this cannot hold long if common justice is done to 
the regiment. 


From aboard the Thornton Transport, Halifax, May 2, 1758. 

We hear we are to sail at two or three days at furthest for 
Louisburg, with a fine fleet consisting of 20 sail of the line 
besides frigates, fire ships, and Bomb ketches, all in high 
spirits and full of Resentment for ye many cruelties com- 
mitted by ye French and ye Indians for which this campaigne 
will I doubt not make them severely suffer. ... In a former 
letter I mentioned Lord Loudon being recalled ^ and now 
can assure you his being recalled is a very great concern to 
the soldiery here who have ye highest opinion of him, I wish 
his successors might deserve as well. General Abercromby is 
a very good man and well liked. He succeeds Lord Loudon 
here in all his appointments on this side ye water and goes 
with ye army into ye Heart of ye country, and Brigadere 
General Forbes with another to ye Ohio. . . . My dearest 

dear Bess's owne for ever and ever 

P. S. 

I now write from Hallifax a country abounding in nothing 
but trees and Indians. As to the bringing my hearts delight 
here I could never think of it if it was the finest place in 
the world while we are in this unsettled way. My heart 
hangs too much after my friends att home to think of it on 
any account tho' there's no earthly pleasure to me so great 
as being with my Bess. 

Your last paragraph gives me pleasure and uneasiness fol- 
why should my dear Bess's dear dear heart so ake. I am I 
bless God in good health and have been so since I come 
here except a cough I got last winter in that excessive cold. 
I find no other disorder than my eyes being so weak that 
I am at last forced to use spectacles when I read and if the 
day be dark when I write. This I look upon as caused as 
much by the sharp smoak of ye wood fires (for ye chimnies 
are all very smoaky) as from any thing else. . . . 

I long nay I pine after you all and daily pray for a joyful 
meeting never after to part this side the grave. 

1 By Pitt. 

To his brother Horatio. 

LouisBURG, Sept. i8, 1758. 

I wrote from hence to my dearest Bess in which I gave her 
an account of my illness and the cause of it, and promised to 
write you a long letter with a full account of the siege. I 
told you I had applyed for leave to go to New York this 
winter for the benefit of my health as it is a much warmer 
climate than this but was indifferent whether I obtained it or 
not as I recovered very fast, but since I wrote I have obtained 
leave and expect this day to be called on to go aboard a large 
schooner bound to New London which is part of ye govern- 
ment of New England . . . from thence I intend rideing to 
New York about one hundred English miles thro' a well 
settled thick inhabited and plentifull country, from thence 
I will write to you or my Bess (I mean York) but perhaps 
not immediately when I gett there for I intend applying to 
General Abercrombie for leave to sell. I have my Colonel's 
leave to do so. If I succeed you may expect next Summer to 
see another schuler ^ stalking into Coolmona. Commissions 
here went for about Twelve hundred pounds, but the ex- 
penses of going home &c. might perhaps reduce it to Eleven. 
This will near clear my debts and if a good farm is to be had 
I might be able then to live, but as I have them two boys^ to 
educate, I don't know but a town life would be the best, but 
if it pleases God that I succeed in my schemes and can have 
ye unspeakable happiness of once more seing my dearest 
Bess, you &c. again, we can at leisure talk these matters over. 
As to our successes here you have to be sure many parti- 
cular accounts, which you should have had early from me but 
that I was taken ill the day before the surrender of the place, 
and my disorder was so lingering that until within this fort- 
night or three weeks I had such a tremour that I could scarce 
write, but God be praised all that is now over and only that 
I have not yett quite recovered my strength I should think 
myself as well as ever. Providence seemed greatly of our 
side ye day of landing, which was ye eighth of June, when we 

' Tramp. ^ Horace, aged 9 ; William, aged 7. 


landed in ye face (as it were) of a Noble Breastwork well 
lined with men some pieces of cannon and several large 
swivels ye sea very rough which made a great surge on ye 
Rocks and large Breakers on a strand ye chief landing place. 
A frigate ye Sleningboug fired almost incessantly on the 
Breastwork from whence ye enemy kept a very hot fire on 
our boats full of men until a Number of Light Infantry 
landed on the right of the division who gott on ye flank of 
their Breastwork and fired upon them. This and seing our 
grenadiers land struck such a terror in them that they imme- 
diately quitted ye Breastwork and took to ye woods which 
saved their Bacons or our light Infantry would have slaugh- 
tered them. However many of them were killed and about 
150 (I am not exact in the number) taken prisoners and had 
we well known ye country we might easily have cutt off 500 
from ye town who as we have been informed since did not 
gett in intill ye second day after. The whole army lay on 
their arms that night, the next day we encamped about three 
miles from ye town, we gott ashore our canon and amunition 
as soon as possible and laid regular siege which took up a 
great deal of time as we were obliged to make roads for our 
canon &c. through a very stony rough country and large 
deep swamps in ye face of their canon which they fired upon 
us in great, I may say I think profusion, in the end we bat- 
tered their walls and the whole town so and Burned two fine 
publick buildings, one built when we had possession of it last 
war for a barrack, ye other a stately chappel and Barrack, 
and burned three of their ships, that they scarcely had a 
battery to fire from. However they still stood it out and 
Never made a sally ye whole siege but one unlucky one in 
which by surprising Lord Dundonald and part of his grena- 
dier company they killed him and seven of his men and took 
one of his lieutenants prisoner the rest of them made their 
escape to the camp but Capt. Schaach of our regiment gott 
ample revenge, he marched into ye Breastwork with his 
grenadiers, Drove the enemy from it killed near twenty of 
them took a Capt. prisoner who was wounded and after died 
of his wounds and killed their commanding officer. Thus 
about a hundred grenadiers drove from a breastwork they 


had possessed themselves off eight hundred men, retook a 
working party of ours who they had taken prisoner without 
ye loss of one man. This will appear fabulous but ye fact 
is truth and the numbers of the enemy reported to be so 
great by ye french captain who after died of his wounds. 
Schaach received ye thanks of ye general officers and ye 
grenadiers ye applause of ye whole army. Two ships still 
remained in ye Harbour, ye admiral ordered a number of 
boats from ye fleet to be manned and sent in att Night 
boarded the two ships without any resistance ye largest of 
which was aground, her they Burned and took away ye other, 
this is ye only thing was done ye whole siege by ye admiral 
in ye ffleet besides ye letting a very fine frigate out of ye 
Harbour one night with all ye Rich effects of ye town and 
yett perhaps ye honour will be all given to Admiral Bos- 
cawen. Now the town thought propper to surrender on 26 
of July and would have made terms but no terms were allowed 
them but ye garrison prisoners of warr, the Inhabitants to be 
sent to France and all this was done with ye loss of 2 cap- 
tains 10 sub. and 150 killed, 4 cap.'s 19 sub. 323 wounded, 
I Lt. and 22 of which were drowned ye Day of landing. I 
now shall only add that this town is well situated a very fine 
harbour but not so fine a one as Hallifax but Never can be 
made very strong one reason is ye frosts are so great that ye 
lime will not sement and ye sods molder away. Another and 
ye greatest that several hills command it, and from them are 
a Number of little Hillocks which make ye approaches easier, 
it takes up time to make the Roads over these Hills chiefly 
composed of a number of stones and swamps from Hillock to 
Hillock and these so exposed to ye enemy that they are only 
to be passed in ye night. This side of ye Island is all a rough 
peice of land or rather stones and Rocks some small pasture 
ground is cleared where there is tollerable herbage but it all 
abounds with strawberries Hurts rassberries and cranberries 
and abundance of currant shrubs these bring great quantities 
of grey plover and small curlew which grow most immoder- 
ately fatt, but I am told other parts of ye island are very 
fertile, have plenty of cattle and vegetables and Spanish river 
plenty of fish of all kinds particularly salmon. 


... I have now made ye most of my time I had to write 
and perhaps tired your patience so shall only beg you'll give 
my affect. Service to all Friends not forgetting dear Mary 
and all ye rest at Coolmona 

I am My dear Horace 

truly affect. 

P. T. 
Tell my Bess I love her a wee bit. 

To Mrs. Elizabeth Townsend. 

New York, Nov. 26, 1758. 

... I am still in some expectation this summer to see my 
dear dear Petts sweet face again which is my greatest happy- 
ness in this life. . . . The miserable situation of many officers 
wives and nowwiddows makes me pleased when I reflect that 
my dearest Pett is not here with me, for at best if you was 
here your life would be a very uneasy one, I don't mean from 
the country for it is in general a very fine one but this, that 
we could be together only the winter, then the parting every 
spring when we are in doubts of ever seing each other and 
att that time reflecting on ye wretched situation you would 
be in in a country distant from Friends and perhaps relief 
If I should fall, would make us both miserable every time of 
parting though at times I would give any thing to have you 
with me. 

Sure Dick if he has not been idle has by this time taken 
his degree. What you say of making a present to Susan is 
very true yett I would be glad to make her some small pre- 
sent that she might see I do not forget her. Poor Moll has 
not had any thing this* long while and by what you tell me I 
judge you don't afford yourself ye propper necessaries. 

May 5, 1759. 

I now write from Boston a very clever town (on a Penin- 
sula) by much the largest on this continent and had much ye 
greatest trade but New York. 

New York has so much the advantage (paper is torn here) 
in a very little time it will flourish more than this place and 
indeed will in all probabihty by ye mistress of America though 


it has a powerful rival in Philadelphia but then ships are 
froze up there in ye winter, at York there's free passage in 
or out lett ye season be never so rigorous. 

' Here the government is the Presbyterian, it is so too in 
Connecticut and their severity differs very little from Popish 
persecutions as far as imprisoning, fining and whipping. I 
cannot help telling you one instance of this which was at 
Newhaven in Connecticut government. The Master of one 
of their ships had been through misfortune from home three 
or four years. His friends all thought him dead, his wife 
was in mourning for him, when he came home unexpectedly 
on a Sunday. He went toward the church to meet her and 
as they were a remarkably fond couple, he ran to her, took 
her in his arms and kissed her in the street, and for doing 
this on the Sabbath, he was prosecuted, fined and whipped : 
how should you like to have your Philly served so when he 
goes home, for I fancy he would take you in his arms even 
at the church door. In this town, the justices put the captain 
of a man of war in the stocks for almost the like, but the 
captain dissembled his resentment, invited the justices on 
board, then ordered them to be tied one by one, and gave 
them two dozen lashes each. They complained at home, 
and all the satisfaction was, that they ought to have received 
two dozen more and indeed I think so.' 

To his brother Horatio. 

My brother Sam ... I hear with great concern poor man 
is dead. It was told me by a Bandon man who says he saw 
his corps carried out of Town. I much doubted it, because 
my Bess in her letter says he had the gout at Bandon. 

. . . My Bess takes no sort of notice of ye Death of Molly 
Morris ^ or Nelly Herbert ^. Molly I hear from Barbara died 
of the smallpox, and Nelly, Arthur's Brother says, died in 
child bed. A few more losses which I hope I shall never 
see would make me determine never to go back again and 

• Mary daughter of John Townsend of Skirtagh. 

^ Helena daughter of Rich. Townsend of Castle Townsend, married Rev. 
Arthur Herbert. 


indeed was it not for the desire of being with my friends I 
could I think live happily here the rest of my Days. It's a 
Noble country and was it inhabited well enough to manufac- 
ture for themselves they need not care a farthing for Europe, 
but this cannot be for centuries to come. . . . 

In my last I told you I had a squirrel for my Moll and 
Susan, the prettiest pet of the kind even here where they are 
plentiful. But Tom's kindness for him was his loss, for he 
fell overboard playing about the ship and was drowned which 
vexed me heartily. 

To Mrs. Eliz. Townsend. 

LOUISBURG, /WM« 3, 1759. 

I cannot miss this hasty opportunity of acquainting my 
Hearts darling of my safe arrival here and God be praised 
pritty hearty and well. In my last I mentioned to you of an 
expectation I had of purchasing a Lieutcy. for Thom, but 
am I find disappointed in it. He is very high in ye Rank of 
Ensign is grown a lusty fellow and what is better is well liked 
by everyone. . . . 

Its said 7 or eight ships saild from old France and that 
some of them are fallen into ye Hands of some of ye New 
York Privateers which I heartily wish might be truth. The 
People of that town deserve good success as no people on 
this continent have their spirit for Privateering for all ye 
continent besides have not so many as this one place. 

In my letter to Horace I gave him an account of our suc- 
cess at Quebec contrary to our most sanguine expectations. 
Mr. Wolff by several feints for five or six days up the river 
as if he intended landing there, drew a great part of the 
enemy up that way. He slipped them in the night which 
was very dark and the current being strong he was luckily 
obliged to land nearer to the town than he had intended, 
where if he had landed he would have met with great diffi- 
culty, the enemy being aware of his landing there. 

Captain Townsend's memorial to General Amherst 
asking for permission to dispose of his commission, 
says his health has given way owing to the fatigues he 


suffered at Louisburg. He seems to have succeeded in 
selling his commission and returning home, for the next 
letter is in Tom's round schoolboy hand, dated 1763. 
' I find by my dear father's letter from Dublin in which 
he mentions Dick being very near marriage, &c.' This 
was Captain Townsend's eldest son Richard, born at 
Braad, February 1737. His god-parents were Samuel 
Jervois of Braad and Lieutenant Thomas Bate. His 
father complained in some of his letters that Dick could 
not apply himself to his books ; but he improved, for he 
qualified for a doctor of medicine and practised in 
Dublin. There he married three times, first Eleanor 
Sealy of Bandon, second, Margaret, daughter of Horatio 
Townsend of Bridgemount ^, and third, Elizabeth Morris. 
He sold the estate of Derry to his youngest brother 

It is beheved in the family that Tom was near General 
Wolff when he fell at Quebec, and that he sat for his 
portrait to be introduced in the painting of the death of 
Wolff. He continued in the 22nd Regiment, and was 
in the siege of Ravenna. When he returned to Ireland, 
Lord Townshend, the viceroy, gave him a post in the 
Battleaxe Guards, and alwaj's treated him as a cousin. 
Tom was said to have been the handsomest man in the 
Battleaxe Guards ; but he never married, and lived with 
his brother Will, who had also been in the army, at 
Derry when they were both old men. 

Captain Philip Townsend died in 1786, leaving four 
sons and two daughters. Susanna, his eldest child, was 
married to Michael French of Rath ; and Mary, born at 
Castletown, August 1789, married Thomas Somerville^ 
of Castlehaven and Drishane. 

A quaint account of Derry and the two old soldiers 

' See Table VIII. '' See Table II. 


IS presented in notes by Somerville Reeves, grandson of 
Mary and Thomas Somerville. His mother died when 
he was very young, and as he was sickly the Somerville 
aunts fetched the little fellow from Cork to try the 
effects of country air. 'Aunt Hungerford' (she had 
been Kitty Somerville) and Bessie Townsend (daughter 
of Richard Townsend the eldest of the Derry Branch), 
left Cork with the boy in a post-chaise on Easter Sun- 
day, 1747. They started at five in the morning, and 
ended their forty miles drive at Derry at six that even- 
ing. There they found Uncles Tom and Will, and Tom 
Townsend (Mrs. Harrison's father). The party had 
finished dinner, but a side table was laid for the new 
comers. Aunt Hungerford was explaining to the old 
gentleman how delicate little Somerville was, and how 
he must eat no vegetables nor fat meat, when dinner 
was carried in, and to her horror it consisted of fat 
boiled pork and greens. Uncle Will paid no attention 
to her protests, and said it didn't matter for once, they 
could attend to her rules another time. But next day 
he proposed to keep the child at Derry, so that he 
might have the advantage of being near the grammar 
school, and the rules for the diet were all forgotten. 
The family used to kill a pig and live on it, and then 
a calf was consumed in the same way ; and, strange to 
say, the delicate boy flourished and grew strong. This 
was partly owing to the kindness of the housekeeper, 
who took care of him like a mother, care which he was 
able to repay by pensioning her in her old age. He 
used to walk into school at Ross every day, and soon 
made light of the long mile, and though his master was 
anxious to prevent his working too hard, he speedily 
got to the head of his class above much older boys. 
Not long after Somerville came to Derry, Uncle 


Tom died of a paralytic stroke, and Uncle Will was 
sole master of the quaint little castellated house which 
stood on the site of the present dairy, near ' Frank 
Townsend's field.' A chief part of Uncle Will's land 
was a very stony hill ; they were always hauling sand 
to improve it, but the sand seemed to sink in and the 
land grew no better. Uncle Will wore a red waist- 
coat, trimmed with silver buttons, with a fox engraved 
on each ; but there was no hunting, the horses were too 
busy with the land for that, but there was plenty of 
coursing, and Somerville learned to shoot and fish and 
fence. The evenings Uncle Will and the boy spent in 
the panelled parlour with its rush-strewn floor, where 
the old officer used to busy himself in cutting out 
wooden soles for his own shoes, to which the leather 
was afterwards nailed. The shelves round the room 
were filled with tools and finished shoe-soles. While 
he worked he used to tell endless stories of his adven- 
tures by flood and field, how he swam the Rhine with 
dispatches in his mouth, and had to disguise himself as 
a peasant to bring them safely across France. He used 
to talk of sport too, and tell the best way to trap otters 
and catch fish, for he was the most successful fisherman 
in the neighbourhood. All his life long Somei-ville 
Reeves used to quote Uncle Will's wise sayings ; for 
although the veteran had no great literary attainments 
he was a man of shrewd sense and much natural talent. 
He was very courteous in his manner, though when he 
chose he could override everyone about him. He kept 
plantations of useful herbs in the garden, and used to 
doctor the poor, to whom he was very kind ; he grew 
great quantities of flax and employed many women in 
spinning and weaving. 

He was Captain of Yeomanry, and his old military 


experience was useful in the troubled times of 1798. 
Sir John Moore commanded the soldiers then quar- 
tered in Clonakilty, and used to ask Uncle Will to 
guide him about the country. Somerville remembered 
the' bonfires on the hills at that time, and running along 
the roads with other boys after the rebels. He was as 
happy as a king at Derry, and only wished to spend his 
whole life there with his uncle, whom he always called 

Deriy was the only house in that neighbourhood 
that was not attacked by the rebels. The windows 
were barricaded, and lights kept burning, and once 
Uncle Will paced up and down all night before the 
door, keeping guard, but no enemy appeared. After 
the rising was suppressed and people were afraid of 
their houses being searched for arms, numbers of pikes 
were found piled at the hall door every morning, the 
house at one time being almost filled with them. 

Once Uncle Will and Somerville walked over to the 
village of Castle Townshend for a christening. On 
their way home the old man said, ' Somerville, my boy, 
I thought they would have made me godfather, and 
I brought my present in my pocket, but as they did 
not ask me, I shall give it to you ; ' and he pulled out 
a handful of gold pieces, old Spanish doubloons, and 
handed them to the boy. No doubt they were the relics 
of some prize-money gained in the wars. Somerville 
bought a watch with the gold, which he wore for the 
rest of his life. 

After a time his happy life at Derry had to come 
to an end. When he next visited it, he wrote in his 
diary, ' I found my uncle had removed to a house he 
built in Ross, and my Uncle Horace was building and 
living at Derry. Uncle Tom Hungerford was also 


living at Ross and the Frenchs at Clonakilty.' Somer- 
ville was as welcome at Derry as ever, and his Uncle 
Horace used to help him with his Latin lessons. 

William Townshend died at Ross in 1816. 

His younger brother, Horatio, was born in 1750. 
His god-parents were Richard Townshend of Castle 
Townshend, Thomas Becher, Mrs. Penelope French 
and Mrs. D. Robinson. 

His father mentioned in the letters from America, 
' I always suspect my Horace of tending a little to 
idleness, but I know fair means and a little coaxing 
will make him do anything.' If Horace was idle at 
seven years old, he showed little signs of it afterwards, 
for he was a singularly active man both in mind and 
body. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, and when 
he left home to go up there as a freshman, his 
foster-brother ran after him to press his little savings 
of a guinea on him as a farewell present. He rode 
all the way up to Dublin, a journey which took about 
a week. He took an 'ad eundem' in order to accom- 
pany his kinsman, Richard Boyle Townshend, of Castle 
Townshend, to Magdalen College, Oxford. Afterwards 
he went on the continent with him, Mr. St. Leger 
(afterwards Lord Doneraile), and the Hon. W. Spencer. 
He wrote an account of these travels in Blackwood's 
Magazine^ under the title of 'A Trip to Spa^.' He 
was a most amusing companion. Long afterwards 
Bishop Spencer of Madras, meeting Harriet Towns- 
hend in India, asked if she could be any relation to 
a delightful Horace Townshend with whom his father 
had travelled as a young man, and whose conversation 
he had never forgotten. When he returned home 
Horace took holy orders. He was ordained Priest 

' See Chapter iv. 


To facL p>ii.i 


1" 1770, and was first Curate of Abbey-Strewrey, and 
^terwards removed to Saint Michael's, Cork, and Car- 
rigalme. In 1785-6 he was Rector of Dungourney, and 
afterft'ards he was Prebendary of the Island, Vicar of 
KilgariflFe and Desert, Vicar of Kilkerranmore and 
Castle Ventry, and Rector of Carrigaline. 

With all these functions he combined those first of 
tutor and then of agent to Lord Shannon, besides 
which he was sovereign of Clonakilty and Justice of 
the Peace. 

These varied offices gave him much influence in the 
neighbourhood, and being a talented, practical and 
kind-hearted man, he was able to do so much for his 
poorer neighbours, that he was named among them 
the ' Friend of the poor.' He was a tall, strong man, 
with red hair and blue eyes, a good horseman, and 
a most interesting and witty companion. At an election 
when a roar of laughter went up from a knot of gentle- 
men, it used to be said, ' That must be a Horatian 

He wrote quantities of ' vers de societe,' both political 
and complimentary, and also The Statistical Survey of 
the County of Cork, a book which contains a quantity 
of varied information about the county. In this book 
he tells with simple delight how, in 1786, when he 
obtained the living of Clonakilty, as there was no 
residence for the clergyman. Lord Shannon 'was 
pleased to accommodate me with his villa at Court- 
macsherry, consisting of a house and upwards of a 
hundred acres, including the woods, a most acceptable 
acquisition to me, wholly unprovided with house or 
land. I there had the first opportunity of practising 
on a small scale an art which, even in theory, had 
always been productive of entertainment.' That is to 

s 2 


say, he added farming to his other pursuits, and en- 
deavoured to show the people that important improve- 
ments in their methods of agriculture need not be very 
costly nor difficult. The Statistical Survey is full of 
useful hints on the subject. 

Horace Townshend married in 1795 Helena, only 
daughter and heiress of the Rev. Richard Meade of 
Ballintober. He had M^ritten charming verses de- 
scribing her beauty of mind and person, and when 
she died, after only one year of married life, he was 
so overwhelmed with grief that his friends feared some 
tragic result. 

As the simplest way of consoling him they persuaded 
him to marry again, and he was accepted by Catherine, 
daughter of Archdeacon Corker, grand-daughter of 
Bishop Jemmett Brown. She was a gentle, religious 
woman ; her portrait is that of a pretty blue-eyed girl. 

Somerville Reeves in his notes gives a glowing 
account of holidays spent at Courtmacsherry, and of 
learning to swim. Mrs. Townsend's brother, Chambre 
Corker, was there, and Joanna, the only daughter of 
Horatio's first marriage, and the whole party used to 
go out fishing at night. About 1810 or 1820 Horatio 
and his brother Thomas joined in buying Derry from 
their elder brother Richard. 

As a Magistrate and Clergyman, Horatio had busy 
times during the troubles of 1798. His cousin, Samuel 
Townsend, the High Sheriff, was able to keep the 
peace in the extreme west, but Horatio was the most 
important man in the neighbourhood of Clonakilty. 
He rode through the town to the large Roman Catholic 
Church, which was crowded with peasantry. There 
he went up into the pulpit, and told the congregation 
they knew well he was their friend and might believe 


his words, that the insurgents had no chance of suc- 
cess, and that the punishment of those who were 
found in possession of arms would be very dreadful. 
He said he would not ask the hearers to bring any 
concealed arms to him, but there was a certain field 
where, if he found arms piled, he should know they 
were left there for him, and he should ask no questions. 
Quantities of pikes were found in the appointed place, 
and were taken out by boat-loads and sunk in Court- 
macsherry Bay, with the result that the country was 
quite peaceful, and when the military did come they 
found no excuse for the atrocities that had been prac- 
tised elsewhere. 

Once, it is said, they made a beginning, and Horace 
Townsend riding by, saw a party of soldiers preparing 
to hang two men up by the feet over their own doors. 
He promptly had the men cut down, and he was too 
important a person to be disobeyed. Long afterwards 
his daughter, Susan, when driving, heard a woman say 
to her children, ' See, there's the daughter of the man 
who saved your father's life.' 

The house which Horatio built at Derry was soon 
filled with children; three sons and eight daughters 
lived to grow up. He was a most tender father, and 
prepared his sons for college himself, and wrote 
nursery rhymes for his little ones. One of these was 
printed in a newspaper ^ but may be preserved here. 

' When winter came and days were short, 
And chilling winds began to blow, 
The children thought it pretty sport, 
To watch the gently falling snow. 
" Oh dear," cried Car, in great surprise, 
" 'Tis sure the strangest of all weathers, 
For if I may believe my eyes, 
I vow 'tis raining white goose feathers ! " 

' Cork Constitution, Christmas, 1878. 


" ril gather some for Dolly's bed ! " 
" Indeed, Miss Car, you're quite mistaken, 
*"Tis raining salt," smart Harry said, 
" Enough to salt Papa's fat bacon." 

Dick, thinking none were in the right. 
With hopes to gain a better prize, 
Said "powdered sugar, nice and w^hite. 
Was kindly falling from the skies." 

They begged for leave abroad to go. 

And promised not to stay too long^ 

In order finally to know 

Whose guess was right and whose was wrong. 

Car's feathers melted at the touch. 
Experience Harry's error taught her. 
And Dick, whose hopes were raised too much, 
Found nothing in his mouth but water ! ' 

It must be remembered that snow is very seldom seen 
in the mild and sheltered south-west of Ireland. 

Horace Townsend was much injured by an accidental 
explosion of gunpowder — his sight never quite re- 
covered, and he had to give up his long rides. He 
went to Harrogate for his health in 1820. He died in 
the year 1837 ^ It is said that on the day of his death 
the petty sessions were being held, and the first case 
was just being dealt with, when a loud voice was heard 
crying out from the body of the court, ' Gintlemen, is 
this a time for ye to be sitting here, while the Poor 
Man's Friend is lying dead upon his bed ? ' There 
was a great silence, and the speaker went on, ' God 
knows our hearts are broken ; and is this a time for 
ye to be sitting here?' This was the first tidings 
the magistrates had received, and they at once rose 
and adjourned the Court. He was buried in Ross 

His sister Mary spent her married life in the tapes- 
tried rooms of the old Castle of Castlehaven. After 

' Rev, John Hume Townsend. 


her husband's death she Hved in a nice house on the 
Mall at Castle Townshend, and was described by her 
soni Harry as 'a dear httle prim old lady. She used 
to give little feasts off the most beautiful old china, 
and when all was over she and her daughter washed 
It up themselves in a snow-white wooden bowl' 

Horatio Townsend lost his wife early from fever 
in 181 1, soon after the birth of Richard, and his eldest 
daughter, Kate, had the responsibility of a large house- 
hold thrown on her young shoulders. 

The tone of society then was far lower than at the 
present day, and drinking and gambling were paving the 
road to ruin of many of the best families in the county. 
Kate and Eliza, the two eldest sisters of the Derry 
family, were sent to school in CHfton with Miss Mills, the 
favourite pupil of Hannah More, and the aunt of the 
historian Macaulay. The piety that the girls learned 
from Miss Mills became the centre of a quickened 
religious life in their neighbourhood, and the influence 
of their brothers widened the circle of good. The two 
eldest, Chambre and Horace, entered the Church, and 
were well known as preachers. There is a touching 
story told at length in the British Messenger of a little 
servant girl at Clonakilty whose mistress reproved her 
for never going to church : ' you must leave my service,' 
she said, ' I won't have a heathen in my house.' The 
girl's curiosity was at last aroused, and she thought she 
would go to church for once and see what it was like. 
When she came home, ' Ma'am,' she said, ' it wasn't a 
man in the pulpit, but an angel, with a red glory round 
his head, and he read about the dry bones, and I'm 
just dead and dry bones myself.' The good mistress 
was delighted at the effect of the red-haired rector's 

' To Miss H. Somerville. 

(i) Frances Vere, 
dau. of 
Robert Vere Stewart, 

[vith i 

I * 

Chambre Coijohn, s( 

of Dern^ Flemi 

b, 1797, d. i^ourt, 

[and n 

Horatio, : 
of Derry, 
took the 
name of 


Nathaniel =^ 

- Maria 




dau. of 






Chambre =^ Emily, 


dau. of J. 

Baxtt ; 


Charlotte, Mary =; Hugh Cholmondely, Wilmot. Horatio, M'illiam. Dudley 

of Derry. Stewart. with issue. Ryder. 



posed and used daily while Master, in Chancery, is 
extant, asking for ' health, knowledge, and integrity.' 

His grandson. General Townshend, is author of 
several books of travel. Wild Life in Florida, and 

Notes on Table XII. 

Note A.— Eliza, eldest daughter of the second family 
of Horace of Derry, married Lionel John Fleming. 
His family was of Scotch origin ; there are many Flem- 
ing monuments in Glasgow Cathedral, and in the east 
window are the crest and motto borne by the present 
Flemings of New Court. The first of this family acted 
as agent to the Becher's, and settled in the neighbour- 
hood of the estates he managed. There were others 
of the name already in the county, possibly they invited 
this young man over. Sir Henry Sidney, Elizabeth's 
viceroy, speaks of Flemings among the ancient English 
settlers in Cork, and others are mentioned in Charles 
the Second's Courts of Claims. 

Lionel Fleming, of Thornfield, married Martha, 
daughter of Major Ancram, and sister of Mrs. Richard 
Townsend ' of the Points' They had two children, 
Becher, who married Judith Somerville^, and was the 
father of the Lionel John above mentioned, and Eliz. 
Martha, who married Redmond Uniacke, of Carrig, Cork, 
who died 1802. 

Note B. — The Cor Cors or Cceur Coeurs were an 
ancient family believed to have come to England in the 
time of William the Conqueror, and afterwards granted 
Nostall Abbey by Queen Elizabeth. An account of 
Abbot Maurus Corker will be found in the Dictionary 
of National Biography. 

> Table I, Chapter vii. " Table II. 


Some relatives of Catherine Corker seem to have 
come from St. Buryan's, Cornwall. Others were 
officers in the army of 1648. Eliza, sister to Catherine 
Corker, married the Rev. Philip French. 

Note C. — The Oliver family descend from Captain 
Robert Ohver, M.P. for County Limerick, and Valentine, 
daughter of Sir Claud Hamilton. 

Colonel Robert Oliver, of Castle Ohver, had a son John, 
Archdeacon of Ardagh, who married Elizabeth, daughter 
of the Most Rev. R. Ryder, Archbishop of Tuam, and 
was the father of General Nathaniel Wilmot Oliver, 
R.A., whose only daughter married the Rev. C. C. 
Townsend of Derry. General Oliver's sister Alicia 
married James Hewitt, Lord Lifford, Dean of Armagh, 
and his sister Eliza married R. Aldworth of New- 

Colonel Robert Oliver above mentioned had also a 
son Philip, M.P. for Kilmallock, whose daughter Eliza- 
beth married Charles Coote of Mount Coote, and had 
a son Chidley, who married Anne, daughter and heir of 
the Honourable William Hewitt, and their son Charles 
Eyre Coote married the daughter of Major Crofton 
Croker, and had a daughter Mary Anne Harriott, who 
married William Uniacke Townsend of the elder Derry 

Note D. — Susanna Townsend, who married Michael 
French, of Rath, had among other children Michael, who 
married Mary Hungerford, of Caermore, and had a son 
John whose daughter Ellen married James Edward 
Somerville, M.D., of Park Cottage. 


(Table XIII.) 

Notes on Table XIII. 
Most of this branch write their name without H. 

Horatio Townsend was born at Castletownsend, 
September i, 1706. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
when sixteen, and became a Scholar in 1724. Ordained 
Deacon, June 23, 1728. Married, 1739 ^ Mary Hunger- 

Having purchased Knockane in the parish of Do- 
noughmore, he resided there while building the glebe 
house of Coolmona. He also purchased 224 acres at 
Ardinpinane from Lord Kingston, in April, 1754. This 
land is in the deed described as ' the ploughland of 
Coosheen in the parish of Scull.' He also bought 
several hundred acres from Sir Charles Moore. 

A warm affection seems to have united him with his 
brother Philip, who began many of his letters from 
America ' My dear, dear Horace.' 

Philip's wife was sister to Horace's wife, and lived 
in their family while her husband was on foreign 

His son, Samuel Philip, of Firmount, is described by 
his first cousin, Horace of Derry, in the Statistical 
Survey, as ' a gentleman of the soundest judgment, the 

' Brady's Records. 


sweetest disposition, and the most undeviating rectitude. 
He enjoyed the singular fehcity of passing through life 
certainly without giving, and as I have reason to be- 
lieve, without receiving offence. To the common people 
of his neighbourhood his loss is irreparable. He was 
their friend in distress, their adviser in difficulty, and 
by a sort of general acquiescence in his justice, their 
umpire in every dispute. Agriculture was among his 
favourite pursuits, and few understood it better ^' 

The same author says ^ that Richard Townsend, of 
Palace Town, was also distinguished among other 
good qualities for his agricultural skill. Palace Town 
is near Kinsale, and has the advantage of a small 
estuary washing its eastern border. 

The next member of this branch of whom I have 
been able to collect any anecdotes is Mrs. Richard 
Townsend of Magournej^, daughter of Dean Hume. 
When set free from other ties, she set out at the age 
of sixty to join her only son, Edward Hume Townsend, 
in India. She rode across the isthmus of Suez on a 
donkey, being the first European lady who crossed the 
desert ; her pluck was commemorated in a paragraph in 
the Times. But this first adventure nearly proved her 
last, for riding briskly ahead of her party, they missed 
her, and she was for some time completely lost in the 

The Rev. Edward Synge Townsend was known in 
the family as ' the apostle ' : his portrait is that of a most 
benevolent looking old man with flowing white locks. 

The Rev. Aubrey Townshend, his grandson, son of 
Horatio Townshend and Elizabeth Trelawney Towns- 
hend^, was born in 1812. He graduated with honours 
at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1836, and was ordained by 

' Stalls. Stirv., ii. 157. ^ Id. ii. 39. ' Table X, 


Bishop Sumner to the curacy of Godalming, but he 
soon accepted the curacy of Hatfield, where the present 
Marquis of Sahsbury was his hohday pupil. When 
Curate of St. Michael's, Bath, he found time to edit the 
works of the Martyr Bradford for the Parker Society, 
and formed a remarkable collection of black-letter 
books. He was presented by the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells to the hving of Puxton in 1874. Here, beloved 
by all, he ministered in spite of failing health down to 
the very last Sunday of his life, retaining in his old age 
all his keen interest in historical and theological study, 
and his wonderful memory for genealogical data. ' His 
figure, aged beyond his years, was well known at all 
gatherings of the clergy throughout the diocese, and his 
well-weighed words at Ruridecanal Chapters often 
struck a deeper note than usual, and his hearers felt 
they were the words of one who was indeed living very 
closely with his God. He died August, i8gi \' 

Commander John Townshend, his brother, entered 
the navy as ' volunteer of the first class ' in 1829 on 
board the ' Britannia,' at Plymouth, and was midshipman 
in the ' Druid' during the insurrections of Monte Video 
and Rio Janeiro. He was present at the bombardment 
of St. John D'Acre, when his ship was the first to 
engage the enemy, and among other spoils he brought 
home a large six-and-half foot Syrian rifle, and a pair of 
bronze candlesticks from a mosque. He and a party 
of friends rode to Damascus, but the plague was so 
deadly in the city that the only relic they dared bring 
away was a horseshoe nail. They rode past the ruins 
of Baalbec and over the Anti-Lebanon, and one night 
he and his companions unconsciously encamped on the 
flat roof of a house, which was built against a hill side, 

1 Bristol Times and Mirror. 


and tied their horses to a chimney which in the dark they 
mistook for a post. He was a senior heutenant of the 
' Plover,' under Captain CoUison, surveying the coast 
of China, in which service she went on shore repeatedly 
and was once nearly wrecked. At Hong-kong he 
horrified the ship's surgeon during the prevalence of 
fever in the rainy season, by starting across country 
with a party of young men in flannels, playing foUow- 
my -leader. However the exercise agreed with them, 
while the careful surgeon caught the fever and died. 

He was exceedingly fond of athletic sports, and 
always organized a cricket club when possible. He 
was said to be one of the strongest men in the Mediter- 
ranean fleet, carrying weights on his little finger which 
not every one could lift. When a midshipman he 
climbed to the cross above the ball on St. Paul's, and 
his favourite reading place used to be the truck on the 
mast-head. His last service, during the Russian War, 
1855, was as senior lieutenant of the ' Himalaya' convey- 
ing troops to the Crimea, and he preserved among his 
rehcs a piece of grape-shot, picked up when riding 
through a storm of shot and shell in ' the Valley of 
Death ' at Sebastopol. 

After serving under three sovereigns for thirty-seven 
years, and winning four war-medals. Commander 
Townsend retired from the service and settled at 
Weston-super-Mare, and took a prominent part in im- 
proving and beautifying that watering-place. It is said 
at one time he sat on twenty-seven committees, and 
was Town Commissioner and Chairman of the Local 
Government Board. 

Edward Hume Townsend was the son of the Rev. 
Richard Townsend, Rector of Magourney, who married 
the daughter of the Rev. John Hume, Dean of Derry. 

Horatio, ^ Elizabeth, 

at the bar, 
b. 1760, 
9n. 1799, 
d. 1844. 


dau. of 
Gen. Sam. 
(Table X.) 

I I I i I 

Cornelms. Samuel. Thomas. Edward Mary. 

died unmarried. 






Mai or 

83rd Rgt., 

d. at 


1851, s.p. 

- Isabella 
(Table XII.) 

De Vera, 
Vic. of 
d. 1891 

John, : 
Com. R.N., 
d. 1884, 

: Marianne 
(Table XII.) 

Horatiobes M; 
(atthebari)fW. ] 
d. unmaiill, d. 


John Edward ^ Jessy, dau. Marion Kathleen 

Chambre. Mansel. of Rev. C. Hungerford. Synge. 

d. 1891. with issue. Young. 




d. unmar. 






I I I 

Maud. Edward. Horace 

Susan, Katherine. Frances. H: 

ther ol 

es (ab 

.ry, wi 

Table I 

Katherine, dau. = 

of Abr. Morris, 

of Dunkettle. 

(Ch. vi. note.) 

?M. 1808. 

Horatio, of 


High Sh, 



Maria, dau. of 

Rev. J. Chetwood, 

of Glanmire. 

m. 1822. 

Thomasine := Samuel 
ffi. 1837. Perry, J.P., 

of Baronea. 


John ~ 


d. 1873. 



Townsend, of 





Herat ic 

ary : 





His education was begun at Clonakilty school, and car- 
ried on at Westminster and Foyle College, London- 
derry, where the Lawrences and Herbert Edwards, so 
famous afterwards in the terrible days of the Indian 
Mutiny, were among his schoolfellows. Having been 
nominated to a writership in the Honourable East India 
Company's Service, he was removed to Haileybury 
College ; here he obtained various distinctions, and finally 
gained the Sanscrit gold medal of his year. He sailed 
for India in 1822, when nineteen years of age, and in a 
short time his abihties brought him special notice and 
promotion from Lord Clive, the Governor of Bombay. 
The thirty years that followed were spent in India, and 
he became in time Secretary to Government, and finally 
Revenue Commissioner to the Presidency. Here his 
talent for languages showed itself; in his court he was 
accustomed to speak in four of the native tongues : one 
of these, Marathi, he spoke like a native. He was a 
devoted Christian and a warm supporter of missionaries 
of all Protestant denominations. A native scholarship 
in the Robert Money school was founded to perpetuate 
his memory. One incident in his life deserves especial 
notice. A friend having called his attention to the fact 
that numbers of rescued slaves were brought by H.M. 
ships to Bombay and there absorbed in the population, 
he, as secretary, laid before Government a plan for 
educating in the Christian faith the children thus 
rescued, in the full belief that they would become 
pioneers for missionary work in their own lands. The 
proposal was adopted, and steps taken for carrying it 
into effect. It is well known to all how the C. M. S. 
has prospered in this work ; how Jacob Wainwright, one 
of the children thus rescued and taught, was the means 
of helping Dr. Livingstone, and finally of bringing his 


body back to England ; but it may not be known who 
were the originators of the plan which has worked so 
well. Mr. Townsend was also a prominent supporter 
of total abstinence. Upon his return from India he 
lived with his family for a short time in Bath, for some 
years near Dublin, aind for the last eighteen years of 
his life on a property which he purchased at Clonakilty. 
While in India he did not amass a fortune, but spent 
the greater part of his large income in philanthropic 
and reHgious works in that country, holding it as a 
principle that money should be spent for the benefit 
of the country whence it was obtained. During the 
years of famine in Ireland he collected some thou- 
sands of pounds annually to send to his native country, 
and out of his private means contributed large sums 
every year for the same object. His liberality was 
very great, but as he generally preferred to give 
anonymously, the amount of his beneficence can 
never be known. He was a good landlord and ma- 
gistrate, a devoted husband, and a wise and loving 

Communicated by the Very Rev. Dean of Tuam. 

The Rev. William Robinson Townsend, for thirty 
years Rector of Aghada, County Cork, was born in 1785. 
He was a man of a most benevolent and unselfish dispo- 
sition, and it was truly said of him that he had a passion 
for doing good. He began his clerical duties in 1810 as 
Curate of the parish of Innis-carra. His stipend was 
only ;£'75 Irish, and he paid £22 a year for his house 
and farm, while the Rector had ^^2000 a year, and two 
glebes. W. Townsend established a farming society, 
and the first dispensary known in the country, and pre- 


viously had acted himself as the physician of the poor 
under the direction of the Doctor. He also established 
an excellent free school in his parish, and a Sunday 
school for those obliged to work on week-days. In 
1822 there was a famine in the country, and a Central 
Committee of landed proprietors was formed. Without 
Mr. Townsend's knowledge he was chosen Secretary, 
and entered zealously on the duties of his office. He 
was afterwards appointed to the Curacy of Coens ; the 
Rector was seldom resident, and the stipend i^ioo a 
year. While there, a visitation of cholera prevailed, 
along with great scarcity of food ; Mr. Townsend was 
appointed Secretary of both Relief Committees. The 
Bishop of Cork presented him with the living of 
Nohonal, and in 1837 he was removed to the living of 
Aghada, where, in addition to his parish duties, he had 
the care of a large family of his own, three sons and 
five daughters. He took up the question of agriculture 
with enthusiasm, wrote several pamphlets on farming, 
and at one time conducted a farming journal, which sold 
well. He wrote under the name of ' Agricola,' and was 
considered a second Martin Doyle. At the age of 
eighty he obtained first prize of ^^30 for an essay on 
the best way of managing a farm of forty acres. 

During the cholera and famine years of 1846-7 his 
energies were severely taxed. He wrote letters in the 
English and Irish papers, and contributions of money 
and clothes poured in. Seeing the evil of giving alms, 
he planned various means of supplying work to the 
people. He organised drainage operations (acting as 
his own engineer), and by this means 137 acres, which 
had been only fit for shooting snipe, were turned into 
profitable pastures. He also set the people to make 
clogs, rough shoes such as are worn in Cumberland, 



and sent to Liverpool for soles, and to Cork for hides ; 
waterproof cloaks and coats were also manufactured 
under his direction. The culture of flax was also 
carried on with great success. Mr. Townsend en- 
couraged the establishment of the Queen's College, 
Cork, when most of the Clergy stood aloof. He aided 
and took a lively interest in the meeting of the British 
Association in Cork, and was a supporter of the National 
School system, believing it to be the best to be had 
under the circumstances. During his long and useful 
life he was ever to the front in any scheme for benefiting 
the moral and spiritual condition of the people. Free 
Libraries were always one of the first things he estab- 
lished in any parish that he was connected with, and 
this at a time when books were dearer and scarcer than 
at present. He married Isabella, daughter of Major- 
General Brook Young, R.A. His eldest son, Samuel 
Philip, the ideal of a brave Christian soldier, was 
killed at Inkerman, November 5, 1854, just as he 
had been gazetted to a Colonelcy in the Royal 
Artillery. His second son. Brook Young Townsend, 
Staff Assistant-Surgeon, was thrown from his horse at 
Hobart Town, Tasmania, and killed, while on his way 
to see a patient. His third son, William Chambers, is 
now Dean of Tuam. He married first, Emma Mary 
Fitzgerald, and second, Emma Mary Fetherstonhaugh. 

Dr. Edward Townsend, of Cork, was on the 'Kent' 
East-India-man, at the time of the well-known fire. His 
son, Rear-Admiral Townsend, entered the navy in 1844 
as a midshipman on board the ' Dragon ' in the Mediter- 
ranean. He was afterwards mate in the ' Retribution,' 
and promoted to Lieutenant 1852. He was then ap- 
pointed to H.M.S. ' Sans PareiL' He assisted in landing 


our troops at Varna, and was present in the attack of 
the 17th October upon the sea-forts of Sebastopol, when 
the ' Sans Pareil ' sustained a loss of eleven killed and 
fifty-nine wounded, receiving thirty-two shells in her 
hull alone. Lieutenant Townsend then was attached 
with the Naval Brigade to Sir Colin Campbell's Division. 
He received command of the ' Boxer,' was three times 
mentioned in despatches, and received the Turkish 
and Crimean medals with the clasps, and fifth Order of 
the Medjide. In September, 1859, he was appointed 
First Lieutenant of the Royal Yacht ' Victoria and 
Albert,' and was Commander 1861. Employed in coast- 
guard service at Skibbereen, and on the China station. 
As captain he commanded the ' Crocodile ' troopship, 
the ' Nymph,' the ' Hercules,' and the ' Warrior.' 
Awarded good service pension 1883. Rear-Admiral 

Why every Maiden in the Family of W. Hume 
Townsend learns to Milk a Cow. 

Told by the Rev. J. Httme Townsend. 

I have often heard my father tell the story of an 
ancestress of his who lived with her husband and chil- 
dren on their estate in the north of Ireland, somewhere 
near Letterkenny I imagine. It was, I believe, during 
the RebeUion of 1668 (?) ; her husband was away on 
military service; her children had been sent some- 
where to be in safe keeping ; and she, with her servants, 
remained in the family mansion, which was on high 
ground surrounded with sloping woods. One night 
she got an intimation suddenly that the Rebels were 
close at hand, so hiding a few valuables about her 

T 2 


person she hastily made her escape in the darkness, 
and before long heard loud yells which told her that 
the attack had begun : soon the sky was lit up with the 
glare of the flames rising from the burning house. In 
terror she fled all the night through, but in what direc- 
tion she knew not ; at last, when the winter's morning 
dawned, she saw a farmhouse not far off, and terrified 
at the thought of discovery, bethought herself of some 
plan to escape detection. She had no idea where she 
was, but summoning all her courage, went to the farm- 
house and asked the farmer's wife if she wanted a ser- 
vant. ' Yes,' was the reply, ' take this pail and stool, 
and go and milk the cows.' She took it, and went into 
the byre and tried to milk a cow, thinking it would be 
easy work, but the cow only kicked her and the pail, 
and her efforts were all in vain ; at last, overcome by 
fear and sorrow and loneliness she sat down, and 
burying her face in her hands, gave way to a burst of 
uncontrolled sobs ; the farmer's wife meanwhile, think- 
ing that she would see how her new maid was getting 
on, looked in, and found her sitting at the wrong 
side of the cow weeping bitterly. The good woman took 
in the situation at a glance, and going up to her said, 
' Ah ! I see how it is, you are one of the poor things 
trying to hide; come along with me, I'll keep you 
safe as long as there is any danger, and no one shall 
know where you are ; ' and so she did, and the poor 
wanderer found a safe hiding-place in the kind woman's 
farmhouse until the troubles had passed away, and 
her husband returned from the war. The practical 
issue of the whole thing was that my ancestress left in 
her will a strict command on all her female issue that 
they should learn how to milk a cow, which command 
has been faithfully obeyed in our branch of the family. 


Many years ago, when I was taking a long drive in that 
neighbourhood with my cousin, Dr. Thomas Barnard 
Hart, of Glanalla, he pointed oat some trees in the 
distance, and said, 'There stood in former days the 
house of the lady who left in her will the injunction 
that all her female descendants should learn to milk 
a cow.' 


The editors will be exceedingly grateful for any further information that 
may be sent. 

Page 128. Richard Townesend matriculated at Hart Hall, 1634, aged nine- 
teen, and as he therefore must have been born in 1615 he evidently 
cannot be Colonel Richard Townesend. 

P. 133. Catherine Gunn is ancestress of Lord Ventry and of the family of 
Gunn of Rattoo. 

P. 141. Capt. Joseph Cuff is ancestor of the Earls of Dysart. 

P. 144. In October, 1695, Col. Townsend received leave of absence from 
his parliamentary duties to go into England for a month, and in August, 
1697, leave to go into the country on urgent occasions.— Cowwoms 
Journals of Ireland. 

P. 150. In June, 1723, Dean Swift spent the summer at Myross, for his 
health, having, he said, when he went there, no acquaintances in West 
Carbery. It is believed that he wrote Carberice Rupes when sheltering 
from the rain in the artificial ruin now known as Swift's Tower. In 
June, 1725, he wrote to Dr. Sheridan, ' IVIr. Townshend of Cork will do 
you any good office on my account without any letter.' 

P. 151. John Townshend, of Shepperton, gave up the seat of Dingle on 
receiving ' a place of profit.' A very lovely portrait of his wife, Mary 
Morris, is preserved at Drishane. 

P. 152. Richard Townshend sat for Dingle before he became member for 
Cork County. 

P. 193, Table II. Richard Neville, second son of Thomas Somerville and 
Mary Townshend of Derry, married Letitia Hungerford of the Island, 
and had a son, Richard Neville, who married Elizabeth Townshend 
Somerville, and had with other daughters Agnes, who married Rev. 
Horace Townshend of Kilcoe. 

Table IX. The younger children of Thomas Somerville and Elizabeth 
Townshend of Shepperton have the following children : — 

Admiral Philip H. T. Somerville has three sons : (i) David Maitland 

Critchon ; (2) Thomas Townshend ; (3) Maitland. 
Doctor James Edward Somerville has : (i) Tliomas Townsend ; (2) 
John French; (3) Henry; (4) James Fitz-James ; (5) Edward 


Richard ; (6) Philip ; {■]) Mary Cornelia ; (2) Elizabeth Townsend ; 
(3") Ellen ; (4) Grace French ; (5) Ada Charlotte Augusta. 
Morris Townshend Somerville has : (i) Anquitil Fitz-Townshend, 
married Mary Cotterell, with issue ; (2) Richard Neville ; (3) Philip 
Horatio Townshend. 

P. 209. Jiead Mary or Margaret. 

Table IX. Rev. Richard Jones is now Rector of Youghal. 

P. 223. Miniatures of Commander Townshend and his wife are in the pos- 
session of Mrs. Edward Townshend. 

P. 240. A miniature of Elizabeth Hungerford wearing a large cap and 
muslin handkerchief is at New Court. 

Table XI. Has been drawn up with the kind help of Thomas Courteney 

Table XII. The first wife of Capt. Horace Townshend was not Jane but 
Elizabeth McCarthie. 

Table XIII. Eliza, daughter of Dr. Edward Richard Townsend, married 
the Ven. Robert Wills, Archdeacon of Cloyne, and has two daughters. 
Horatio Hamilton Townsend of Woodside has with two sons also two 
daughters, Elizabeth Zena and Kathleen Mary Henrietta. 

The Chetwode family is a branch of the English family Chetwode of Chet- 
wode. John Chetwode Aikin claims the ancient title of De Wahull as 
representing through his mother the Chetwodes of Woodbrook, one of 
whom married the heiress of Baron de Wahull. 

The second son of Admiral Samuel Philip Townsend is not Hugh but 
Ernest Neville. 


P. 125, I. 18. For 1792 rmd 1692. 
P. I28j 1. 5. For 1637 read 1634. 


The Roman numbers refer to pedigree tables : when no surname is put 
the Chnstian name refers to a Townshend. 

Agricola. See William R. Towns- 

Aikenhead, E., wife of General 
Townshend, X. 

Aitkin, Chetwode, XII. 

Ancram,Catherine, wife of Richard 
Townsend, I. 

Ancram, Major, II. 

Anketell, II. 

Armitage, Dr., XII. 

Francis, iii. 

Armstrong, Charles, 219. 

Ellen, wife of judge Towns- 
hend, I. 

Amop, Colonel, 97, 206. 

Arundel of Trevose, 25, &c. 

Lieut.-Col., 27. 

Audley, Lord (Castlehaven), 95, 

Aylmer, Rose, I. 

Ayscue, Sir J., 27. 


Baker, Dorothea, wife of Richard 
B., XII. 

Baldwin, Anne, wife of Ed. Man- 
sell, XII. 

Mercy, wife of Samuel, 235, X. 

James, IX. 

William, I. 

Baltimore, sack of, 92. 

Barclay or Berkeley, Captain, 198. 

Barry, Annabella Harriet, wife of 
Norman Lionel, XI. 

Catherine, wife of John of 

Skirtagh, 216, IX. 

Col. Jack, 82, 197. 

■ Col. James, of Lisnagar, 200, 

III (196J. 

Barry, James Redmond, 199. 
Lady Catherine, 108, 198, 

199, III (196). 

Redmond, 216. 

Smith, 199. 

Barrymore, title, 197, 199, 218. 

Alicia, Countess of, 197. 

Earls of, 198, 199. 

David, Earl of, 193. 

Susan, Countess of, 197. 

Batten, Admiral, 25. 
Beamish, 104, iii, 132. 

' Amelia, V (204). 

Frances, IV {201). 

Rev. Adam Newman, XI. 

Townsend, IV {201). 

William, VIII. 

Becher pedigree, 104, 132, 145, 

VI {205). 

Charlotte, X. VI. 

Elizabeth, wife of Horatio, 

203, V (204), VI. 
Elizabeth, wife of Richard of 

Castle Townshend, 150, and 


Helena, X. VI. 

Henry, 213. 

John, IX. VI. 

John, 207. 

— — ■ Susanna, 205, 241. 

Thomas, 96, 105, in, 116, 

121, 205. 
Bendufif Castle, 226. 
Bennett, Col. R., 27. 
Berkeley, Sir J., 4. 
Bernard, A., 116, 123. 
Betteridge, Lieut. F., 84. 
Blake, Robert, 7, &c., 87. 
Bligh, Neville, 27. 
Blunt, Col., 49, 57. 
Boultbee, Rev., XII. 
Bourdillon, Rev., XII. 



Bowdler, Marg. 209, VIII. 

Capt., 2oy. 

Boyle, Margaret, 158. 

Mary, 148. 

Brandon, Lord, 158. 

Bridges, Emma, wife of Adm. 

Samuel, XIII. 

Sir W., 49, 58. 

Bristol, surrender of, i. 
Brocker, Lieut.-CoL, 27. 
Broderick, St. John, 78. 
Broghill (Orrery), 49, 69, 81, 88, 

90, 105, no, 114, 162. 
Brown, Adelaide Helen, wife of 

Thomas Courteney, XI. 

Geoffry, 67. 

Major, 58. 

Bryan, name of, 127, 145, 219. 

Bryanite Club, 147. 

Bunbury, Alice, wife of Thomas, 

Burgh, Hussey, 154. 
Jane Adaliza De, wife of 

Henry John, 187, I. 
Bush, Mary C, wife of Henry 

Fitzjohn, I. 


Cadogan, Eliza, wife of Sam 

Thomas, XIII. 
Cameron, Archdeacon, 193, II. 

Judith, II. 

Campbell, Jane, wife of Sam 

Philip, XIII. 
Carew, Peter, 81, 84. 
Carleton, Webber, XII. 
Carr, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas, 

Castlehaven, Castle, 97, 124, 193, 

Castle Town,mansion of, 108, 123. 
Ceely, Thomas, 3, 7, 17, 24, 25, 28. 
Charles I., King, i, 25, 34, 63, ^^. 

II., King, T], 113. 

Chetewood, Henrietta Maria, wife 

of Horatio, XIII. 
Cholmondly, Capt., XII. 
Chute, A. E., wife of Maurice 

Fitzgerald, 185, I. 
Clare's Dragoons, 157. 
Clarke, Louisa, wile of Horatio 

Uniacke, XI. 
Clubmen, 18. 

Coghill, Adelaide, II. 

Colkitto (Sir A. Macdonald), 50, 

Coote, M. A. H., 266, XI. 

Sir Charles, TJ^ 80 (note), 

Copinger, Domenic, 133,201,207, 


Sir Walter, 213. 

Corbett, Rev. John Reginald, XI. 
Cork, surrender of, 85-88. 
Corker family, 105, 265. 
Corker, Catherine, wife of Horatio, 

260, XII. 
Cotton, Sir Stapleton, 174. 
Cox, family of, 104, 116, 124. 
Crawford, Annie, wife of Horace 

Webb, XIII. 
Crighton, Mary, II. 
Crispe, Lieut.-Col. 49, 57. 
Crofton, Henry Morgan, X. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 31, 63, 71, 94. 
Cromwell's letter on Col. Townes- 

ende, 88. 

Henry, 102. 

Crosbie, Elizabeth, 158. 
Cuff, Joseph, 141. 
Cust, Sir Pury, 121. 


Dalrymple, Ida, wife of Charles 

Eyre Coote, XI. 
Daunt family, 132, V (204). 
Daunt, George Digby, V (204). 

Joseph, 116. 

Mildred, wife of Richard, 


Rev. Achilles, V (204) 

Rev. Thomas, 150, I. 

Thomas, V (204). 

Davis, Dean, 120. 
Deane, Col., 87. 

Rt. Hon. Joseph, 158. 

Delap, Mary, wife of Philip, 219, 

Denny, Arabella, wife of Richard 

Hungerford, XI. 
Desmond, Earls of, 156, 157, &c. 
D'Esterre, Jane, V (204). 
Devereux, J. P., XI. 
D igby, Jane, wife of Jonas Morris, 

Digby, W., I. 
D'Oyley, Anne, of Shottisham, 4. 



D'Oyley, Dorothy, of Walling- 

ford, 4. 

Dorothy, of Testerton, 128. 

• Col. Edward, 4, 72, So, 92. 

Major Charles, 4, 70, 75. 

Doneraile, Lord, 159. 
Donovan, Jeremy, 104. 
Down, Survey, 97. 
Downes, Bishop Dives, 198, 203. 
Driscol, Colonel, 122. 
Dundas, Sir David, 171. 
Dunscombe, Niblett, III (196). 

Noblett, 105. 

Dyke, Elizabeth, wife of Sealy 

Uniacke, XI. 

Eames, Captain, 7S. 
Egerton, Lady Alice, 97. 
Essex, Earl of, 13, 17. 

Fairfax, General, 20, 22, &c., 71, 

79> 95- 
Famine, Irish, of 1847, 224. 
Fanshaw, Lady, 80, 86. 

• Sir Richard, 76. 

Farmer, Major, 84. 
Fealane, Major J. 58. 
Fenton, Sir W., 68, 88. 

Captain, 68. 

Fiennes, i. 

Fitch, Lieut.-Col. Thomas, 27. 

Fitzgerald, Elizabeth, wife of 

Richard, 156, 158, I. 
Emma, wife of Dean of 

Tuam, XIII. 
Knight of Kerry, &c., 156, 

Fitzmaurice, 157. 
Fleming family, 104, 265. 

Becher, XII. 

Horace, XII. 

Judith, 225, XII. 

Lionel John, II, XII. 

Fortescue, Col. Richard, 23, 27, 

30, 35- 
Foulke, 84, 78 (note), 104. 
Frazer, Henrietta, wife of William 

C, XI. 
Freake, Capt. John, 11 1. 
Freeman, Jane, XII. 
Rev. David, 152, I. 

Freke, Helena, 218, IX. 
French, family of, 104, 254, 266. 

Michael, 266, XI. 

Philip, V (204). 


Gahan, Beresford, I. 
Gal way, Helena, 207. 
Gay, Susanna, wife of Richard, 

216, IX. 
Gayson, Lucia, XII. 
Gibson, Emily, wife of Chambre 

Corker, XII. 
Gifford or Jefford, 80, 82, 85, 89, 

104, III, 141. 
Gillett, Evelyn, I. 

Rev. Hugh, I. 

Cooking, Robert, 78 (note), loi, 

III, 116. 

Vincent, 1 16. 

Gosse, Rev. R., X. 
Granger, Lieut. Peter, 85. 
Gray, Adjutant, 36, 45, 49, 57. 
Gunn, Frances, 119. 

Townsend, 119. 

William, 117. 

Gwyn, Captain, 151, 231, I. 


Hamilton, Duke of, 71. 
Hancock,Anne, wife of John Sealy, 

Harris, Lieut., XIII. 

R., III. 

Hart, Dr. T. B., 277. 
Haytubbe, Capt. R., 99. 
Herbert family, 104, 132. 

Helena, V (204). 

Mary, wife of John Henry, I. 

Rev. A., 151, I. 

Herle, Capt. Edward, 27. 
Hibbert, Laura, wife of Richard, 

Hill, Rev. Lion, XIII. 
Homan, Anne, wife of H. O. 

Becher, I. 
Honnor, Catherine, wife of Francis 

200, IV (201). 
Hopton, Sir Ralph, 20. 
Horatio, name of, 127. 
House or Hough, Dr. John, 148. 
Hughes, George, X. 



Hull, R., 104, no, III, 117. 
Hume, Harriet, wife of Richard, 

XIII, 268. 
Humphries, Elizabeth, wife of Ed. 

Richard, XIII. 
Hungerford, Colonel, 36. 
Elizabeth, wife of Richard 

B., IX. 

Helena, IX. 

Thomas, II. 

Hungerford of Caermore, 148. 

■ Mary, 266. 

Hungerford of the Island, 104, 145, 


Elizabeth, 240, XL 

Mary, 267, XII. 

Hyde of Purton, 130. 

Hildigardis, wife of Colonel 

Richard, 129. 


Inchiquin, Lord, 5, 15, 40, 69, 84. 


James II., King, 115, 118. 
Jarvis of Braad, 155, 241. 
Jefiford, see Gifford. 
Jennings, Col. C, 27. 

Major T., 27. 

Jennison, Miss, wife of Richard, 


Francis, 219. 

Jephson, 103. 

Jeune, Joseph, 27. 

Jeynes, Caroline, wife of Thomas, 

Johnson, 84, 87. 
Jones, Bishop, 106, 132. 

Colonel, 44. 

Rev. Jones, X. 

Joy, Amelia Dora, wife of John 

Hume, D.D., XIII. 


Keightly, Thomas, 129. 

Kenny, Sarah Anne, wife of 

Horatio, XII. 
Killigrew, Susan, Countess of 

Barrimore, 197. 
Kingston, Baron, 104, 131, 251, 


Kingston, James of Clonakilty, 130. 

Mary, 130. 

Samuel of Skeat, 130. 

Kirby, Mary, wife of Horace, XII. 
Knocknones or Knockincross, 
battle of, 48, &c. 


Lawless, Hon. Cecil John, I. 
Lifford, Lord, 266. 
Limerick, W., II. 
Lisle, Sir G., 71. 
Loudon, Lord, 242. 
Louisburg, siege of, 248. 
Lucas, Sir C, 71. 
Lyme Regis, 2, &c. 


Mackinnon, Katherine, wife of 

Richard, M.D., XI. 
Macknamara, 58. 
Mansell, Dorothea,wife of Samuel, 

230, X. 
Maria Frances, wife of 

Richard, XIII. 

Miss, XIII. 

Mardyke, J ohn Townshend of, 24 1 . 
Marston Moor, battle of, 16. 
Martin, Judge, 118. 
Mason, Annie Roberts, wife of 

William C, XI. 
Massey, 35. 
Maunsell, Katherine Hare, wife of 

R. Newman, M.D., XI. 
Maurice, Prince, i, 5, 14. 
Maynard, Capt. W., 27. 
McBride, Captain, 156. 
McCarthie, Reagh, 106. 

■ Jane, wife of Horatio, XII. 

McCuUagh, Maye, wife of John, 

Meade of Balintober, 148. 

Archdeacon, VIII (208). 

Helena, wife of Horatio, 

260, XII. 

Rev. John, XIII. 

Mellifont, Barbara, wife of Rich- 
ard, I. 

Eliza, wife of Richard M., I. 

Meares, John, X. 

Meath, Earl of, his regiment, 125. 



Mildmay, Captain, 87. 

Miller, Professor Thomas, XII. 

• John Chambrd, XII. 

Mills, Miss, 261. 

Minchin, Catherine, wife of Philip 
Uniacke, XI. 

Francis Catherine, XI. 

Miss, wife of Richard, IV 


Monsereda, Prince of, 155. 

Moore, Edward, 115. 

Kmanuel, no, in. 

Henry, XI. 

Mary, 240. 

Sir Charles, 267. 

■ Sir Samuel, 116. 

More, William, 60. 

Morgan, Edward Percival, XII. 

Edward Strachan, XII. 

Henrietta, wife of Sam Nu- 
gent, X. 

■ Hugh Townshend, XII. 

Morris of Benduff, 210, 219, 226, 

Catherine, wife of Horatio, 


Fortunatus, 226. 

Jonas, 227, IX. 

■ Mary, wife of John, 254, I. 

William, 227, IX. 

]\Iundy, General Pierrepont, 187, 

&c., I. 
Murphy, Joannah, 210, VII. 

Thomas, 211. 

Myhill, Captain, 85, 86. 


Napier, Sir W., 171. 
Naseby, battle of, 18. 
Neville, Anne, 193, II. 
Newenham, Henrietta, wife of 

Richard Boyle, 162, 182, I. 
Newman, Adam, XIII. 
Helena, wife of Samuel 

Philip, XIII. 
Mary, wife of Richard, M.D., 

Newton, Judge, XII. 
Nisbit, Mary, 148. 


O'Brien, Catherine, 130. 

O'Brien, M., 130. 

O'Driscol, III, 123. 

O'Donovan, in, 145. 

O'Hea, 145, 209. 

O'Neil, Owen Roe, 38, &c. 

O'Regan, 132. 

Ogilevie, Maude, wife of Thos. 

Loftus Uniacke, XI, 
Oliver family, 266. 
Eliza, wife of Chambrd 

Corker, 263, XII. 
Ormonde, Marquess of, 39, 67, 72, 

77, 89- 
Orpen family, 132, 213, VIII 

Orrery. See Broghill. 
Ossory, Earl of, 112, 114. 
Owen, Col., 104, 133, 206, 213. 
Oxford, Earl of, 186. 

Palmer, Eliz., wife of Philip, XIII. 

Pendennis Castle, 20-29. 

Peel, Sir Robert, 161, 184. 

Perry, 193. 

Phaire, Col., 68, 88, 100. 

Piggot, Capt., 63, 78 (note). 

Pine, Capt. Thomas, 6, &c., 12. 

Pitt, 161. 

Powell, Rev. J. P., XI. 

Poole of Mayfield, XII. 

Joanna, wife of Horace, XII. 

Poyer, Col., 69. 
Proctor, Rev., H. P., X. 
Preston, 38, 67. 
Purdon, Major, 88, 89. 


Raban, Rev. R., XII. 
Raglan Castle, 29. 
Randolf, Capt., 49, 57- 
Rathfarnham, battle of, 80. 
Reddish, Elizabeth, wife of John, 

217, IX. 
Reeves (Ryves), Col., 86, 194. 

family, II. 

Somerville, 255, 11. 

Richards, Anne, wife of Horatio, 

210, VIII (206). 
Riggs, Edward, 115, 116, 193. 
Rinucini, nuncio, 37, &c., 70. 
Roberts, Anna Maria, wife of Ch. 

Uniacke, XI. 



Robinson family, 217. 

Dorothea, wife of Richard, 

217, IX. 
Dorothea, wife of Ed. Man- 

sell, X. 
Helena, wife of Sam Philip, 


Rev. Thomas, X. 

RoUo, Colonel, 242. 
Rupert, Prince, i, 16, 82. 

Salmon, Capt, 97, 
Schomburg, 120. 
Scravenmore, 121. 
Sealy, Eleanor, wife of Richard, 

254, XI. 
Shannon, Lord, 153, 259. 
Shipman, Sir A., 27. 
Shute, Sir C, 150. 
Skippon, 33, 35. 
Slaughter, Col. W., 27. 
Smith, Sir Percy, 82, 87. 
Sneyd, H. F., X. 
Somerville, Agnes, wife of Horatio, 

II, IX, XI. 
Dr. J., 266, II. 

family, 193, II. 

Judith, 225, II. 

Mar)', wife of Jonas Morris, 

I, II. 

Rev. W., 193, II. 

Thomas, 183, 191, 193, II. 

Southwell, Arthur, 176, 177. 
Capt., 49, 57. 

Sir Thomas, 117. 

St. Aubyn, Col. John, 27. 

St. Lawrence, Rev. R., 183, I. 
St. Leger, Louise, X. 
Stephens, Abigail, 185. 

family, 185. 

Stewart, Frances Vere, wife of 

Chambre Corker, XII. 
Stewart, family, 132. 

W. of Welfield, 202. 

Stirling, Col., 44, 86. 

Strawson, Maria, wife of Oliver, 

Strode, 2. 
Sweet, Capt. John, 105, 209. 

Jane, 209. 

Swift, Dean, 150. 
Sykes, Emmeline, II. 
Symes, G., ill. 

Synge family, 148. 

Charles, 175. 

Edward, Bishop of Cork, 

106, 114, 149. 
George, Bishop of Cloyne, 

68, 116, 143, 148. 

Mary,wifeof Bryan, 143, 149. 

Mary, wife of Richard, 150, I. 


Taaf, Lord, 45, 47, 50, 67, 70. 
Tanner, Margaret, VIII. 
Temple, Col., 47, 49, 75. 

Sir W. 

Thomas, Catherine, wife of Sam 

Townshend, X. 
Thomond, Earl of, 1 57. 
Tottenham Anna Maria, wife of 

Charles U., XL 
Tower, Catherine, wife of John 

Hancock, XL 
Townshend, Viscount, 153. 

Baron, 127. 

Townshend or Townesend : — 

Abraham Boyle, 172, 183, I. 

Morris, 192, I. 

Ada Elizabeth, XL 

Adam Newman, XL 

Ahce Gertrude (Vernon), 187, 1. 

Katherine, XL 

• Mary (Townshend), IX, I. 


Alicia Hewitt (Morgan), XII. , 

Maud (Maunsell), XII. 

■ • Uniacke, XL 

Anna Jane (Croasdaile), XL 

Maria E., XL 

• — - Maria, X. 
Anne (Becher), X. 

Johnson (Jones), X. 

(Murphy), 21 1, VIll (206). 

(Orpen), VIII (206). 

X, I. 




Arthur Barry, XL 

Fitzhenry, I. 

Henry, V (204). 

Aubrey de Vere (Rev.), 268, 

Aubrey L. Hume, Xlll. 
Augusta Matilda (Warren), X. 
Barbara (Hungerford), 148, 241. 



Barbara (Baldwin), IX. 

(Becher), IX. 

Mellifont, I. 

217, IX. 

Brian, XII. 

Brook Young, 274, XIII. 
Butler, 202, IV (201). 
Bryan of Castle Townshend, 80, 
&c., Ill, 114, 117, 125, 134, 
143, 215. 

145, 147- 

219, IX. 

■ 224, IX. 

(Katherine is entered under C 
for convenience of reference.) 
Catherine (Armitage), XII. 

Corker, XII. 

(Gahan), XII. 

Granville, XIII. 

(Gunn), 117, 133. 

Helena 209, I. 

Helena (Baldwin), I. 

Mary, XI. 

jNIorris, IX. 

(Newton), XII. 

(Wakeham), XII. 

Ill (196). 



263, XII. 

Caroline Edith (Hutt), XI. 

(Miller), XII. 

. (Powell), XI. 

Caroline, XII. 


Chambre Corker, XII. 

Corker, Rev., 263, XII. 

Walker, XIII. 

Charlotte (Hughes), X. 
Becher, X. 



Charles Loftus Uniacke, XI. 

Uniacke, XI. 

WiUiam, XIII. 


Christopher, XI. 
Cicily, XII. 
Constance, XI. 

Cornelius, ill, 207, VIII 

Townshend or Townesend : 
Cornelius of Bridgemount, 202 
VIII (208). 

of Clogeen, VIII (208). 


Cuthbert, XIII. 
Cyril, XII. 

David, III (196). 

Delia C. Grace, XI. 

Digby, I. 

Dora, XII. 

Dorothea (Beamish), VIII (208). 

(Busteed), IX. 

(Copinger), 133, 213. 

(Keiley), X. 

Robinson, wife of Richard, 

217, IX. 

(i Robinson, 2 Wright), X. 


Dorothy, XI. 

of Devonshire, 128. 

202, IV (201). 

Dulcibella, XIII. 

Edwai-d Carr, XI. 

■ H. of Whitehall, 238, X. 

Hume, 268, 270, XIII. 

James, IX. 

Major, XIII. 

Hansen, XIII. 

of Keamore, ill, 132. 

Professor, XIII. 

R. N., XIII. 

Richard, M.D., XIII. 

Richard, M.D., 274, XIII. 

son of Bryan, 147. 

(Splendid Ned), 234, X. 

Svnge, 211, 268, XIII. 



Edwin, 225, XIII. 

Eleanor, wife of Commissioner 

John, 222, IX, XI. 
Eleanor, XI. 
Eileen Blanche, XI. 
Elizabeth Anne (St. Lawrence), 

183, 184, I- 

(Cummings), XII. 

(Dunscombe), 200, III 


(Fleming), XII. 

(Green), IX. 



Elizabeth (Gwyn), 151, I, 
(Harris), XI. 

Helen Fitzgerald, XI. 

Henrietta, I. 

Henrietta (Somerville), I, 

Hildegarde (Warren), I. 

(Morris), IX. 

(Smith), XIII. 

• (Stewart), 202, IV (201). 

Trelawney, wife of Horatio, 

232, X, XIII. 

(Udaile), IX. 

V (204). 

wife of Edward Synge, 

XIII, 93, 213. 
Eleonor (Moore), XI. 
Ellen Beatrice, XL 
Ellinor Hilaire Fitzgerald, XI. 
Emma (Wadsworth), XI. 
Emily Mabel, XIII. 
Ernest, XI. 
Ethel Hare, XL 
Eva Mary, XL 

Florence, XL 

■ XII. 

Francis, 120, 132, 134, 200, IV 


■ • (Daunt), V (204). 

Dorothea, wife of J. Crew 

Townsend, XIII. 

Georgina (Browne), I. 

Horatio, XIII. 

of Clogeen, 202, IV (201). 

■ son of Bryan, 148. 

- VIII (207). 

Frederick Trench, General, 265, 

George, XL 

Robert, XIII. 


Georgiana (Hill), XIII. 
Gerald, XL 

Geraldine HenriettaTownshend 
(Mundy), 187, 189, I. 

Mary Newman, XL 


Gertrude M. Fitzgerald, XL 

(Townshend), XI. 

Gladys Mary, XL 
Godfrey T. Mason, XL 

Townshend or Townesend : 
Grace (Anstis), 93. 

(Meade), VIII (208). 

Harriett (Freeman), 152, I. 

■ (Gahan), I. 

Helen Agnes, XL 

Marianne Barry, XL 

(Meares), XI. 

Helena (Becher), X. 

(Daunt), XIII. 

(Herbert), 152, 252, I. 

(Holder), XL 

(Meade), 148. 

(McDermot), XIII. 

(Penrose), XIII. 

X, XIH. 


Henrietta, Anne Margaret 
(Somerville), I. 

(Crofton), XI 1 1. 

(Raban), XIII. 



Henry Becher, XIII. 

Denny, XII. 

Fitzjohn, I. 

John, 187, I. 

Owen Becher, I. 

■ XIII. 

151, 191, I. 

183, I. 

Herbert, XII. 
Herbert Eyre, XL 
Hildegardis, XL 

Honora Maria (WhitIa), XL 
Horace Montague Diraock, XL 
Horatio Crawford, XIII. 

Hamilton, XIII. 

I. Uniacke, XL 

of Coolmona, 148, 151, 267, 


- of Derry, 159, 258, XII. 
S., XL 

Thomas, IX. 

Uniacke, XI. 

Webb, XIII. 

■ IX. 



120, 122, 132, 134, 203, 

V (202). 
210, VIII (208). 



Hugh, XIII. 
James Edward, IX, X. 

of Baltimore, 218, IX. 

Richard, XI. 

217, IX. 

Jane, 201. 

(Grey), XIII. 

Janet Mary (Galvvey), XI. 
Joanna (Poole), XII. 
John C, XI. 

Chambre, XII. 

Colonel, 165, 180, &c., I. 

Commander, 268 XIII. 

Commissioner, R.N., 220, 

&c., IX. 

Crew Chetwood, XIII. 

Fitz Cornelius, 134, 209, 

VIII (209). 
Fitzhenry, Judge, 151, 192, 


Hancock, XI. 

Hume, XIII. 

of CarmuUane, 217, IX. 

of Courtmacsherry, 197, 

III (196). 

of Shepperton, 151, 191, I. 

of Skirtagh, 146, 216, S:c., 


Sealy, 224, IX. 

Sealy (Masterin Chancery), 

264, XI. 
— IX. 


217, IX. 

225, XIII. 

Jonas Morris, 192, I. 

Judith, wife of Ed. Townshend, 

22s, IX, XIII. 
Judith, IX. 

Kathleen, XI. 

Audrey, XI. 

Francis, XI. 

• Synge, XIII. 

Kingston, 120, 132. 
VIII (260). 

Laura (Bourdillon , XII. 

Lilian, XIII. 

Louisa Elizabeth, XI. 

Lucy (Chetwood Aikin), XIII, - 

}ilabel Louise, XI. 

Townshend or Townesend : 
Margaret, wife of Richard, VIII 

(208), XI. 
Maria (Somerville), II, XII. 
Marianne Oliver (Townshend) 

Marion Francis, XI. 

Hungerford, XIII. 

(Sneyd), X. 

Maria (Devereux), XI. 

Eliz. Coote, XL 

Martha (Carr^ Williams), IX. 

Eleonor (Corbett), XI. 

(Gosse), XL 

Uniacke, XL 

217, IX. 

Mary Alice (Townshend), 219 

IX, X. 

Amelia, XL 

Baldwin, X. 

(Boultbe), XII. 

(Daunt), 150, I. 

H. Maunsell, XIII. 

(Harris^, XIII. 

(House), 148. 

-^ Hungerford, XIII. 
— Maunsell, XIII. 

(MoUoy), XL 

(Morris), IX. 

■ (Robinson), IX. 

■ (Somerville), 254, 262, II, 


(Tuckey) XIII. 

Young, XIII. 

Maud, XIII. 

■ Alicia, XL 

Maurice E. Hume, XIII. 

FitzGerald, 177, 184, I. 

Fitzgerald Stephens, 187, 1. 

Mercy, X. 

Mildred (Carleton), XIII. 

Ethel, XL 

— — Louisa, XL 

Muriel Florence Uniacke, XL 

Nathaniel W. Oliver, XI 1. 
Norman FitzGerald, XL 

Lionel, XL 

Singleton Barry, XL 

Patrick, III (196). 

Penelope (French), 203, V ('204). 

Percy Dalrymple, XI. 



Philip of Derry, 146, 148, 15 1, 
&c., 239, &c., XI, XII. 

of Fern Hill, XIII. 

Uniacke, XI. 

William Uniacke, XI. 

107, 132, 134, 137, 206, 

VII (207). 

211, VIII (208). 

219, IX. 

Redmond, John Uniacke, XI. 

Uniacke, XI. 

Townesend, Richard, takes Brid- 
port, 7 ; wounded at Lyme 
Regis, 13 ; defeats the club- 
men, 20; becomes Lieut.-Col-, 
25; treats for the surrender of 
Pendennis, 27 ; reports the 
same to Col. Ceely, 28 ; re- 
turns to Dorset, 30; ordered 
to Ireland, 36 ; commands 
the ' main battle ' at Knock- 
nones, 49 ; routs Colkitto, 61 ; 
signs the Remonstrance, 65 ; 
treats with the Derby House 
Committee, 75 ; disowned by 
Inchiquin, 76 ; attempts to 
seize Youghal, 82, 84 ; made 
prisoner by Bettridge, 84 ; 
leads the revolt of the garrison 
of Cork, 85 ; brings the sub- 
mission of Cork to Cromwell, 
87 ; settles in West Carbery, 
94 ; supplies the ' Little 
Charity ' with horseraeat, 99 ; 
reports the plundering of the 
' Patience,' loi ; permitted 
to raise sunken guns, 102 ; 
receives a patent from 
Charles II, loj ; elected 
member for Baltimore, 105 ; 
becomes heir to Mr. McCarthie 
Reagh, 106 ; receives a com- 
mission in the militia, iii ; 
made High Sheriff, 114; 
chosen sovereign of Clona- 
kilty, 116; defends Castle- 
town, 122 ; his death and 
burial, 125 ; his possible 
origin, 127 ; the names of his 
two wives, 129, 130; list of 
his children, 132, 133 ; copy of 
his will, 134, 135 ; list of lands 

TowNSHEND or Townesend : 
belonging to him, 136, 137, 
138 ; extracts from his patent 
for Skibbereen manor, 139, 
140 ; copy of his deposition, 
140, 141 ; deed signed by 
him, 142. 

Richard Baxter, XII. 

■ Boyle of Castle Townshend, 

159, &c., I. 

Boyle, Rev., 223, IX. 

Fellow T.C.D., 218, IX. 

FitzGerald, 163, 194, I. 

Fitzjohn, 134, 138, 144, 


Harvey, XI. 

Hume, XIII. 

Hungerford, XIII. 

Hungerford Denny, XI. 

married at Brackinashe, 


M.D., 241, 254, XI. 

Mellifont, 192, 200, I. 

Newman, M.D., XI. 

of Devonshire, 128. 

of Ditchford, 128. 

of Kinneagh, 93. 

of Northampton, 125. 

of Palace Town, 268, XIII. 

of Schull,2i6, IX. 

of the Point, 192, I. 

Staplyton Barry, XI. 

2nd of Castle Townshend, 

137, 146, 147, 149, I5I>I9I>I- 

3rd of Castle Townshend 

(Munster Peacock), 152, &c., 

- VIII (20S). 

202, IV (201). 

Robert, Captain, 78. 

P. Loftus, XI. 

Sir, of Chester, 78. 

Uniacke FitzGerald, XI. 

Roger, Sir, of Raynham, 4, 79. 

Samuel, General, 230, 232, X. 

Henry, X. 

Irwin, X. 

Nugent, 233, 239, X. 

Philip, Admiral, 274, XIII. 

Philip, Colonel, 274, XI. 

Thomas, X. 

of Dereeney. X. 



Samuel, of Firmount, 267, XIII. 

of Garrycloyne, XIII. 

■ of Whitehall, 146, 147, iji, 

215, 229, 252, X. 
2nd of Whitehall, 233, 234, 


3rd of Whitehall, X. 

150, I. 

Sealy Uniacke, XI. 
Sophia Elizabeth, XI. 
Susan Constantia, XI. 

(Hodgson), XII. 

(Townshend), XII, XIII. 

Susanna (French), 254, 266, XI. 

Thomas Achilles, XIII. 

Commodore, 218, IX. 

Courteney, XI. 

Crofton Croker, XI. 

Dyke, XI. 

Hungerford Denny, XI. 

Loftus Uniacke, XI. 

of Braconashe, 4, 128. 

of Clyda, XI. 

of Derry, 241, 254, XI. 

of Innistogue, XI. 

of Mayo, XIII. 

Philip Barry, XI. 

Richard, I. 

Somerville, I. 

William FitzGerald, XI. 

Victoria (Chambers), I. 

Walter of Hinton, 128. 
William Chambers (Dean of 
Tuam), 274, Xlll. 

of i)erry, 254, 257, &c. 

Richard, I. 

Richard Newman, XI. 

Robinson, 272, XIII. 

son of Bryan, 148. 

son of Col. Richard, 108, 

132, 134- 

Tower, XI. 

Uniacke, XI. 



. XII. 

Wilmot, XII. 

Travers, Sir R., 58. 
Tremaine, Col. Lewis, 27. 
Trench, Helena, wife of Richard, 

W. Stuart, XI. 

Tuckey, Major, X. 


Uniacke, Isabel, II. 

Redmond, 165, XI. 

Ussher, Adelaide, II. 


Veres, the fighting, 127. 
Vernon, Hon. and Rev. Courteney, 
189, I. 

• Courteney, Robert, I. 

Sidney, C. FitzG., I, 


Wadsworth Ch., XI. 
Wakeham, Rev. T., X. 
Warden, 82, 87, 89, 105, 141. 
Warren, Alicia, wife of John, 217, 


Capt. R., X. 

Mary, Carre, wife of Ed. 

Henry, X. 
Warwick, Earl of, 4, Ii. 
Water, Lieut. George, 141. 
Wellington, Duke of, 171, 174, 

Were, Col., 6. 
Westropp, Bella, wife of Henry, 

White, Mrs., of Glengariffe, 163. 
Wilkinson, Miss, 217, IX. 
Williams, Carre Columbine, 217. 

Martha, wife of John, IX. 

Wolfif, General, 253, 254. 
Wogan, Col., 82. 
Woodbiffe, Antony, III. 
Worcester, Marquess of, 170, 172. 
Wrey, M., II. 
Wright, W., X. 

Youghal, 80, 83, 88. 
Young, Jessie, wife of Edward 
Mansell, XIII. 



Armitage, Mrs. Breckenbrough, Emu Bay, Tasmania (2 copies). 
Arnold, C. T., Stanford House, Wimbledon (2 copies). 
Baker, Miss, Covert Side, Hasfield, Gloucester (6 copies). 
B.\RTER, Rev. W. E. B., i Grafton Street, Berkeley Square, W. 
Beamish, W. H., 8 The Crescent, Queenstown, Co. Cork. 
Becher, Rev. H., The Rectory, Castle Haven, Skibbereen. 
BouLTBEE, Mrs., The Vicarage, Chesham, Bucks. 
Cloyne, The Dean of, The Deanery, Cloyne, Co. Cork. 
Coleman, James, H. M. C, M.R.S.A., 41 Manchester Street, 

Coppinger, W. a., The Priory, Manchester. 
Dunn, T. W., Bath College, Bath. 
Evans, Richardson, Wimbledon. 
Fleming, Mrs., New Court, Skibbereen (2 copies). 
Gibbon, Mrs., Leinster House, Wimbledon (2 copies). 
Gillman, Herbert Webb, J.P., B.L., Clontiadmore, Coachford, Co. 

GoRT, Viscount, East Cowes Castle, Isle of Wight. ' 
Hodgson, Brian H., F.R.S., D.C.L., Alderley Grange, Wootton- 

imder-Edge (2 copies). 
Hungerford, Miss, The Island, Clonakilty, Co. Cork. 
King, Gilbert, Pallastown, Kinsale, Co. Cork. 
Kington- Oliphant, J. L., Gask, Auchterarder (3 copies). 
L'Estrange, Mrs., 27 Royal York Crescent, Clifton. 

„ Rev. A. G., 26 Cumberland Terrace, Regent's Park. 

Marsh, Mrs. Howard, 30 Bruton Street, W. 


Miller, Professor, Gottingen, Germany. 

MuNDY, Mrs. Pierrepoint, Castle Townshend, Co. Cork (25 copies). 
Pearson, Lady, Rozel, Wimbledon. 
Reeves, Miss, Tramore, Douglas, Cork (2 copies). 
Ross, The Dean of, Glandore House, Leap, Co. Cork. 
Sherwood, Rev. W. E., Magdalen College School, Oxford. 
SoMERViLLE, Col., J.P., D.L., Drishane, Skibbereen, Co. Cork. 
„ Aylmer, Drishane, Skibbereen, Co. Cork. 

Lieut. Boyle T., R. N. 
„ Miss Henrietta, The Clock House, Farnborough, 

R. S. O. (2 copies'). 
„ James, M.D., Park Cottage, Leap, Co. Cork. 

„ Thomas Townshend, Christiania. 

Staveley, Canon, The Vicarage, Killiney, Dublin. 
TowNSEND, Charles Eyre Coote, Mount Coote, Kilmallock. 
Horatio Hamilton, Woodside, Co. Cork. 
Rev. John Hume, D.D., St. Mark's House, Tunbridge 

Wells (3 copies). 
Martin, Troy, New York, 
„ N. L., Resident Magistrate, Armagh. 
„ Richard Hungerford, M.B., 13 Westbourne Terrace, 
Robert U. F., Stone View, Blarney. 
„ Admiral Samuel, The Grange, Farnham, Hants. 
(2 copies). 
Mrs. W. Uniacke, Walcot, Bray, Co. Wicklow. 
Townshend, Rev. A. G., 32 Effra Road, Rathmines, Dublin. 
Mrs. Chambrd Corker (20 copies). 
Chambry C, Frenchgate, Richmond (8 copies). 
C. B., M.D., 456 King's Road, Chelsea. 
Charles Loftus, 15 Molesworth St., Dublin (2 copies). 
Charles Hervey, Raynham, New Haven, Connecticut 

(2 copies). 
Charles Uniacke, 15 Molesworth Street, Dublin 

Professor Edward, Queen's College, Galway h m^ ■. \ 
■i\ T ' IT -^ ^ \o topics). 

Major Henry Fitzjohn, Seafield, Casde Townshend 


TovvNSHEND, Capt. Horace, Courtmacsherry, Co. Cork. 

Mrs. Horatio, Kilcoe, Skibbereen. 

Jas. Richard, 31 Walham Terrace, Blackrock, Dublin. 

Mrs. John Hancock, Myross Wood, Leap, Co. Cork. 

Mrs. John Sealy, 90 Lower Drumcondra Road, Dublin. 

Miss Katharine Corker. 

Capt. R. A., Friendly Cove House, Durrus, Bantry. 

Mrs. Richard Newman, Innishannon, Co. Cork. 

Samuel Nugent, St. Kames, Schull, Co. Cork. 

Thomas Courtenay, White Hall, Fox Rock (2 copies). 
,, W. Charles, 22 Lower Pembroke Street, Dublin. 

TuAM, The Dean of. The Deanery, Tuam.